Grammar in EAP

Clause Complexes and Complex Sentences

Subordination & Coordination: Exercise

Subordinate Clauses

In a subordinate clause, one clause is always part of another clause. This forms a complex sentence. There are five main ways in which the clauses combine:

  1. With a subordinating conjunction: as, if, when, before, after, because, unless, although, ....
  2. With a wh- clause element: what, who, whoever, how, ...
  3. With a non-finite clause: to infininitive clause, -ing clause, -en clause.
  4. With a non-restrictive relative clause.
  5. With a that clause.

Identify the type of clause combination in the following sentences:

If there is any legislation which it is necessary to pass for special departmental or other reasons, it may be undertaken.

The committee reported in February 1943 that there would be nothing left for the British postwar aircraft industry unless something were done at once.

It shows that while the UK was in deep deficit in trade with the dollar area, in most years this was added to significantly by the deficit of the rest of the sterling area.

The two things are not the same, and, although Marx and Engels are not very clear, they do attempt to distinguish them.

What Marx and Engels show is that these ideas are examples of ideology.

The book in other ways also reflects how little they had yet formulated a detailed evolutionary history of society.

This was because no-one could be sure who exactly within this group gave birth to him.

Whatever we produced at the end of the nine hours we would be stuck with for the next four or five weeks.

Wherever the way is not closed by statute or precedent, new rules of law will from time to time be authoritatively laid down to meet new circumstances and the changing needs of society.

Why this control procedure should have reduced inhibition is not clear.

Understanding how a planet generates and gets rid of heat is essential if we are to understand how a planet works.

The pupils working together are not obliged to keep to their preliminary sketches.

Developing countries that have recently emerged from the decolonization process learned this lesson fairly quickly.

The response to this was to suggest that we look back at the vernacular architecture of the Old World.

To say this is not the same as complaining of his acknowledgement that poor people can have a good time.

The stimulus is particularly noticeable to a hungry animal, which then works hard to obtain the food.

In London, where he spent a number of years, he had gained a reputation as a thief.

O'Dowd, Rolston, and Tomlinson (1980) point out that when the centralized state comes in simply to administer and maintain law and order, it tends to reproduce relationships which pre-exist its intervention.

That the local priests continued to play a significant part in the regulation of local sexual morality from the beginning of the state is shown by accounts of "boy meets girl" from the 1920s.

It would be wrong to believe that the body clock develops only in response to a rhythmic environment and the effect upon the sleep/wake and feeding rhythms that this produces.


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