Reproduction & Development

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REPRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT
As all organisms destined to die, it essential, for the continuation of the species, that they the powers of reproduction at some time during their life history. The methods of reproduction within the animal and plant kingdoms enormously, from simple division of the body into two halves, e.g. Amoeba, to the complex social and physiological events involved in the reproduction of mammals. If the production of the young simply by the division of only part of one adult body then this asexual reproduction, and can seen very clearly in such organisms as yeast and Hydra.
The asexual production of young a means of building up numbers of a species at a time that favourable to the adult. This may two drawbacks. Firstly, there the immediate problem of possible overcrowding and competition followed by the likely death of some of the young - a very wasteful process. Secondly, there the far more important long-term problem that the young will identical, in their nuclear and chemical constitution, to the original parent. This could well in the production of a large number of individuals all of which could susceptible to the same disease. Hence, on the arrival of such a disease, there a strong possibility of the whole community killed. In a normal population, which the result of many sexual matings, there considerable variation in susceptibility to any disease and hence there could well survivors of any infection.
Regeneration
Many organisms the power of growing a replacement following the loss of an organ, or part of an organ. Primitive organisms frequently capable of regenerating an entire organism from a very small piece of the original, e.g. mosses and sponges can regenerated from a very few cells.
Perennating organs
An organ that the life of a plant from year to year a perennating organ. Such structures frequently the additional task of asexual reproduction. They the grower to guarantee the type of flower or crop which will from the planting of the given perennating organ, whilst giving the chance of increasing the number of plants in the years to come.