Doing the research

Linguistics Abstracts: Exercise

Linguistics Abstracts contains abstracts in English of linguistics articles appearing in more than 140 journals from over 20 countries. Each abstract is classified and cross-classified according to area, so that it is easy to locate abstracts on a common topic. Linguistics Abstracts abstracts scholarly articles appearing in linguistics journals and selected university and laboratory working papers. It also selectively abstracts scholarly articles of linguistic interest from journals in related fields and general scientific journals. It is published 4 times per year and is also available on-line.

Find articles that might be useful for essays on the following topics:

Q Educational Linguistics


    Moon, Young-in. 2002. Korean university students' awareness of plagiarism in summary writings. Language Research. 38 (4): 1349-1365.

The present study examines Korean university students' awareness of plagiarism in summary writings. Twenty nine university students were asked to write English summaries of an English source text. They were then given the instruction on what is plagiarism and why they should avoid it. Finally, they were again asked to write the second summary writings of the same source text. The degrees of exact copying in the first and second summaries were compared based on the meaningful unit. The results showed that a 3-hour class session, which mainly focused on the warnings against plagiarism, had an enormous effect on the reduction of the copying degree in students' summary writing. The students illustrated the ability to summarize the text in their own words in the second summaries. They mainly copied in the first summary because they lacked the understanding of the notion of plagiarism. It was suggested that students should be informed of the concept of plagiarism and be trained to paraphrase and write in their own words.



    Zumbo, Bruno D. 2003. Does item level DIF manifest itself in scale-level analyses? Implications for translating language tests. Language Testing. 20 (2): 136-147.

Based on the observation that scale-level methods are sometimes exclusively used to investigate measurement invariance for test translation, this article describes the results of a simulation study investigating whether item-level differential item functioning (DIF) manifests itself in scale-level analyses such as single and multi-group factor analyses and per group coefficient alpha. The simulation factors were two levels of DIF (moderate and large) and four levels of percentage of items with DIF (ranging from approximately 3-41 of the items). The results indicate that item-level DIF did not manifest itself in the scale-level results. Clearly, then, translation efforts in language testing should ensure measurement equivalence by investigating item-level translation DIF, and it may be misleading to give consideration only to the scale-level methods results as evidence of translation equivalence.



    Sireci, Stephen G. and Avi Allalouf. 2003. Appraising item equivalence across multiple languages and cultures. Language Testing. 20 (2): 148-166.

Activity in the area of language testing is expanding beyond second language acquisition. In many contexts, tests that measure language skills are being translated into several different languages so that parallel versions exist for use in multilingual contexts. To ensure that translated items are equivalent to their original versions, both statistical and qualitative analyses are necessary. In this article, we describe a statistical method for evaluating the translation equivalence of test items that are scored dichotomously. We provide an illustration of the method to a portion of the verbal subtest of the Psychometric Entrance Test, which is a large-scale post-secondary admissions test used in Israel. By evaluating translated items statistically, language test developers can ensure the comparability of tests across languages and they can identify the types of problems that should be avoided in future translation efforts.



    Lokan, Jan and Marianne Fleming. 2003. Issues in adapting a computer assisted career guidance system for use in another country. Language Testing. 20 (2): 167-177.

An extensive adaptation exercise was undertaken by the Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER) when it was decided to modify the 1988 version of the American `SIGI Plus' (System for Interactive Guidance, plus more) (Educational Testing Service, 1981 and later dates) for Australian conditions. The information is of several kinds, requiring varying degrees of validation and checking for local appropriateness. Although the same language, English, was involved, there are substantial differences in education systems and educational pathways, and noticeable differences in occupational conditions and people's value systems. Adaptations were needed at the level of the language (terminology), factual details relating to the vocational world (starting salaries, workplace conditions, legislation), and the educational world (educational programs, extracurricular facilities, further education). The self-assessment modules had to be adapted and then validated against Australian occupational criteria. Teams comprising occupational psychologists from government departments, career teachers, and counsellors both from educational and corporate settings adapted and verified all information and assessment components. Finally, all adaptations needed to be implemented in the computer program, requiring frequent and thorough system testing. The steps in the adaptation and validation procedures are outlined following a brief discussion of elements of career guidance and a description of SIGI Plus itself.



    Chae, Sunhee. 2003. Adaptation of a picture-type creativity test for preschool children. Language Testing. 20 (2): 178-188.

The Test for Creative Thinking - Drawing Production (TCT-DP) is a creativity test, suitable for most age and ability groups. It was developed by Jellen & Urban (1986) and has been used mainly in Europe. This study explores the possibility of implementing TCT-DP amongst kindergarten children in Korea. Results from a TCT-DP field study on 1366 Korean pre-school children are comparable to those found in previously reported German studies of TCT-DP. The article presents steps taken to adapt TCT-DP to a different culture. These steps include: test translation, test implementation, scoring, selection and training of test agents and graders, norm construction, and score interpretation. The findings provide useful information for practitioners wishing to adapt foreign psychological tests such as TCT-DP to different cultures, especially in relation to the assessment of pre-school children.



    Stansfield, Charles W. 2003. Test translation and adaptation in public education in the USA. Language Testing. 20 (2): 189-207.

The use of translated versions of formal educational assessments is becoming more common in the United States of America (USA). This is due to two converging factors: (1) legislation passed during the Clinton and Bush administrations; (2) an influx of non-English-speaking immigrants, especially from Latin America. Against this background, this article discusses theoretical and practical issues pertaining to the translation or adaptation of educational assessments in the USA. These issues include the role of language proficiency and academic background in performance on standards-based achievement tests in different languages, factors affecting the decision whether to translate tests, translation methods and procedures, the degree to which translated tests are used in the USA, current laws influencing the use of translation, and the role that language testing specialists may play in this arena.



    McQueen, Joy and Juliette Mendelovits. 2003. PISA reading: cultural equivalence in a cross-cultural study. Language Testing. 20 (2): 208224.

The first cycle of the OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) was conducted in 2000. Students in 32 countries were surveyed to assess their reading literacy, mathematical literacy and scientific literacy. It is essential in an international study of this type that the assessment materials be culturally appropriate for the many participating groups. They must also be linguistically equivalent, and make sense psychometrically for individual countries as well as for the group of participants as a whole. This article discusses the steps taken to attain cultural relevance and appropriateness in the reading literacy construct, and in the stimulus materials and items which operationalize it. It explains the influence of multilingual considerations on the development of the reading literacy assessment instrument and notes some psychometric procedures used to maximize the validity of the instrument in an international context.



    Grisay, Aletta. 2003. Translation procedures in OECD/PISA 2000 international assessment. Language Testing. 20 (2): 225-240.

As a part of the OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), an international survey was conducted in 2000 to assess the Reading, Mathematics and Science literacy of 15-year-old students in 31 countries (see McQueen & Mendelovits this issue (03/Q/239); see Grisay 2002). The article describes the procedures implemented by the PISA International Co-ordination Centre for the development of national versions of the assessment instruments in all instruction languages used in the participating countries. It also presents data (collected during the field trial of the instruments) that provide some empirical information on the effectiveness of these procedures. The International Centre developed two source versions (in English and French) of the instruments. It was recommended that the national adaptation teams produce two independent translations (one from the English and the other from the French source version) of the assessment material into the language of instruction in their country and that they reconcile them into a single national version. A group of international verifiers appointed and trained by the International Centre then checked the equivalence of all national versions against the source versions.



    Wren, Yvonne. 2003. Using scenarios to evaluate a professional development programme for teaching staff. Child Language Teaching and Therapy. 19 (2): 115-134.

The need for professional development for both teachers and speech and language therapists working with children with speech, language and communication needs has been highlighted in recent publications. Less attention has been given to how such training should be evaluated. This paper describes the use of scenarios to evaluate a professional development programme for teaching staff, offered by speech and language therapists. The benefits and limitations of using this approach over other methods are discussed.



    Reid, Jennifer. 2003. The vowel house: A cognitive approach to vowels for literacy and speech. Child Language Teaching and Therapy. 19 (2): 152-180.

Awareness of consonants and vowels is a fundamental literacy skill. In English, there is a highly complex relationship between written and spoken vowels. Children with language impairment may display significant difficulties in acquiring adequate phonological processing skills for vowels, with serious consequences for their acquisition of literacy. A framework based on phonetic features of vowels but incorporating links to written vowel patterns is presented. This has proved useful for improving children's phonological awareness of vowels, for literacy teaching, and also for targeting persisting spoken vowel production difficulties. The framework has been specifically devised for the vowels of Scottish English, but it may be adapted for other varieties of English.



    Trudeau, Natacha, Patricia L. Cleave and Elizabeth J. Woelk. 2003. Using augmentative and alternative communication approaches to promote participation of preschoolers during book reading: A pilot study. Child Language Teaching and Therapy. 19 (2): 181-210.

Literacy development is important, especially for individuals using augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). Early exposure to reading and writing through joint book reading is important in this development. This article describes a project examining the impact of an interactive book reading programme on four preschool-aged children and their mothers.

Two of the children were typically developing and two relied on nonverbal communication means. The program used AAC techniques and adaptations to promote the participation of all children. The children's participation was examined in the group and during book reading in the home before and after the group programme.



    Allwright, Dick. 2003. Exploratory Practice: Rethinking practitioner research in language teaching. Language Teaching Research. 7 (2): 113142.

This paper is an introduction to the rest of this Special Issue of Language Teaching Research devoted entirely to Exploratory Practice (EP), a form of practitioner research. It is also an introduction to EP itself, telling the story of the development of its practices and its principles over the last ten or so years. Readers already familiar with EP may wish to go directly to the other seven papers in this issue, for illustrations of EP in practice, for research about EP, and for a more thorough review of the relevant research literature (see especially the papers by Miller and by Perpignan). The case for EP presented below is based on a perceived need for practitioner research to be rethought: to be refocused on understanding, and ultimately on a concern for the quality of life in the language classroom, for both teachers and learners. The paper includes, in Section VII, a brief introduction to the other papers in this volume.



    Braga, Walewska Gomes, Solange Fish Braga and Isolina Lyra. 2003. What puzzles teachers in Rio de Janeiro, and what keeps them going?. Language Teaching Research. 7 (2): 143-162.

This paper focuses on the key mechanism of `puzzling' in EP, and the crucial issue of sustainability (see Allwright, this issue (03/Q/244), Sections IV.2 and V.2), in the context of volunteer teacher development work (Section VII.2). Having taken part, initially as participating teachers and now as `multipliers', in Exploratory Practice (EP) meetings held in the city of Rio de Janeiro since 1997, we decided to investigate the puzzles presented by teachers from state and private schools as well as from language courses, in order to gain a general idea of their concerns and to better plan our future EP meetings. We grouped the puzzles into six emerging categories: motivation, anxiety, teaching, institutional lack of interest, discipline (or behaviour), and Exploratory Practice itself. This grouping gave us an interesting picture of the teachers' concerns and led us to investigate further by interviewing nine of the teachers involved. We found that these interviews also gave us insight into the extent to which sustainability, one of the main principles of EP, is being achieved at present and how EP is related to teachers' lives. The whole process of investigation and reflection led us to the understanding that EP is as important to those teachers as it is to ourselves, for it helped each one of us to sense considerable improvement in the quality of our lives.



    dos Santos Machado, Beatriz and Adrianna Nobrega Kuschnir. 2003. Puzzling, and puzzling about puzzle development. Language Teaching Research. 7 (2): 163-180.

This paper has two roles in this collection. First, it illustrates Exploratory Practice (EP) in action, with two classroom investigations. Secondly, it goes further, and throws light on the key mechanism of EP (see Allwright, this issue (03/Q/244), Sections Ill.l(d) and IV.2) - puzzlement. It thus presents two different puzzling processes, the EP process as set out in the introductory paper to this issue, and a metaprocess of puzzling about our own puzzlement processes. First, we carried out separate research studies as EP practitioners, with one of us investigating the puzzle, `does the dictionary really help our students to understand the text'?, and the other investigating the puzzle, `why do my students translate words even when they've already understood their meanings in English?' Then we puzzled about the process of puzzle development itself. This further investigation contributed, we believe, to a better understanding about how intra and inter puzzlement processes can be integrated. Our emerging understandings led us to suggest that we mentally operate in a puzzlement zone while working with our puzzles. Drawing on a possible parallel with Vygotsky's (1984) notion of `zone of proximal development' (ZPD) and on the ZPD's levels of development (actual development level and level of potential development), we hypothesize that we mentally act at similar levels - the actual understanding level and the level of potential understanding - while working with our puzzles in this puzzlement zone. We present our work together as one way of incorporating EP into research at Master's level.



    Bartu, Hulya. 2003. Decisions and decision making in the Istanbul Exploratory Practice experience. Language Teaching Research. 7 (2): 181200.

This paper makes its distinctive contribution to this collection by taking us behind the puzzlement processes of Exploratory Practice (EP) to help us understand the interactive workings of an EP group, and in particular the threats to sustainability that emerged. It reports a discourse analytic enquiry into the nature of the decisions taken and the decision-making process employed at the EP group meetings held at the Teachers' Centre of the British Council in Istanbul between the years 1994 and 1997. The EP group consisted of three regularly attending core members, who held meetings with a total of 11 teachers and teacher trainers from various institutions in Istanbul. In addition to the extensive supplementary data collected over the time span, the selected basic data consist of 13 hours of audio-recording of six group meetings. Initial examination of the data revealed that decisions were taken in identifiable long stretches of discourse, beginning with an initiation, continuing with negotiation, which can further be categorized into clarification, contribution, acceptance, and rejection moves, and ending with finalization. The analysis based on this model suggested that the group made three types of decisions: content, (i.e., what do we work on?), procedure (i.e., how do we work?) and aims (i.e., why do we work?). The most general conclusion that can be drawn from the study is that the group could not complete the EP stages due to recurrences of past decisions, different attitudes and expectations of members, and lack of a systematic reflection and evaluation component in their mode of work. The article ends with implications and suggestions for EP groups in similar contexts in the future.



    Miller, Inés. 2003. Researching teacher-consultancy via Exploratory Practice. Language Teaching Research. 7 (2): 201-220.

This paper provides much of the theoretical background to Exploratory Practice (EP) that it was not possible to cover in the introductory paper to this collection. It also illustrates how the framework of EP can be invoked in the context of doctoral research. I report and comment on my reflexive doctoral study, which focuses on my own professional development as an EP teacher-consultant (Miller, 2001). 1 added an academic investigative dimension to my already reflexive practitioner research with a view to creating opportunities for working towards enriched understandings of the unfolding of two longitudinal teacher-consultancy encounters in which I worked, within EP (Allwright 1992-2002), individually, as an EFL consultant to/with two practising EFL teachers. I claim that my paradoxically reflexive positioning in both my practitioner and academic research practices combined to enhance my understandings of the `unrepresentable' management of reflection in the sessions. I captured the interactional delicacy of the evolving teacher-consultant relationship through longitudinal topic-footing frame micro-analyses.



    Slimani-Rolls, Assia. 2003. Exploring a world of paradoxes: An investigation of group work. Language Teaching Research. 7 (2): 221-239.

This paper has a dual role to play here. First, it presents a classroom investigation conducted within the framework of Exploratory Practice (EP) set out in the introductory paper to this volume, and secondly it illustrates EP's potential for developing a `research culture' in a university institution. Perhaps it should be possible to take such a culture of inquiry for granted at university level, but recent decades in the United kingdom have seen the rise, and fall, of many universitybased language teaching units whose members' contracts did not entail research. Now that research has become a major source of funding, such staff are increasingly being urged to undertake research as well as to teach a language. EP, with its emphasis on integrating research into pedagogy (see Allwright, this issue (03/Q/244)), offers a research model that experienced language teachers might prefer to traditional academic research, and find more manageable. This paper illustrates how an investigation into group work arose from this interest in developing a culture of inquiry, and concludes with a note of caution concerning the pace of change.



    Gunn, Cindy. 2003. Exploring second language communicative competence. Language Teaching Research. 7 (2): 240-258.

Reporting a classroom investigation within the framework of Exploratory Practice (EP) as set out in the introductory paper to this issue, this paper illustrates first how EP offers a successful and coherent approach to doctoral research, and secondly how learner and teacher/researcher understanding can be developed together. EP principles were used to integrate teaching practices and research in an applied setting to aid both the students and myself, through a collegial process, to develop our own understandings of what happens in the language classroom. Data collected through the use of various classroom activities included both analysis of the students' performances and the students' reflections on their performances. The combination of the various forms of data permitted comprehensive discussion of communicative competence over time, by looking at what the students actually do, what the students say about what they do, as well as what others say about what the students do. With the data collected from a small number of students learning English at an International school in Thailand, two girls and two boys ranging in age from 11 to 13 representing four different nationalities, over a six-month period, I was able to see how their communicative competence developed over time. This information ultimately enabled me to better understand my puzzle area concerning the challenges of helping students develop communicative competence.



    Perpignan, Hadara. 2003. Exploring the written feedback dialogue: A research, learning and teaching practice. Language Teaching Research. 7 (2): 259-278.

The final paper of this Special Issue on Exploratory Practice (EP) is another illustration of the potential of EP for doctoral research. More importantly, like the preceding paper by Gunn it emphasizes learner as well as teacher understanding, and, most importantly, it also explores ,quality' in interpersonal relationships. This paper reports on research, conducted in an EFL Academic Writing context, about a written dialogue between a teacher and her learners. This dialogue consists of the learners' written text, the teacher's written feedback and the ongoing responses that ensue from this initial exchange. Most past research into teachers' written comments on student-writers' work has examined quantitatively either the teachers' or the learners' perspective, and has emphasized the outcomes of the learners' revision process. A comprehensive analysis of the intentions and interpretations of the exchange from both the teacher's and the learners' perspective, as well as of the dynamic nature of the dialogue within its full pedagogical context, has not yet been done. It was hoped that such an analysis could lead to some generalizations which, in turn, could lead to recommendations for improving pedagogical practice. However, what began as a quest for a theory that could inspire guidelines for teacher effectiveness became a quest for an understanding of the conditions under which effectiveness could best be achieved. In EP terms, these conditions represent life in the classroom and the quest illustrates the aim of teacher research: to strive toward improving the quality of the life that will enable more effective use of the feedback dialogue as a crucial element in the writing process.



    de Mejia, Anne-Marie and Harvey Tejada. 2003. Bilingual curriculum construction and empowerment in Colombia. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. 6 (1): 37-51.

This paper is based on a recent research study set up to trace the development of a bilingual curriculum in a monolingual private school in Cali, Colombia, with particular reference to two aspects: the creation of a curricular proposal in accord with the philosophy and expectations of the school community, and the process of participant empowerment generated throughout the research project. The methodological perspective adopted was mieroethnography, involving the analysis of interactive sessions, participant observation, research diaries, and reflective questionnaires. The results indicate that an Alternate Day proposal, based on flexible curricular guidelines was the most appropriate alternative for the particular context of implementation. Furthermore, the process of participant empowerment was positively evaluated.



    Smith, Karla J. 2003. Minority language education in Malaysia: Four ethnic communities' experiences. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. 6 (1): 52-65.

Malaysia is a multilingual, multicultural society. The National Language Policy that established Bahasa Malaysia as the official national language includes a provision for the use of the nation's numerous other languages, including those of the indigenous minorities, provided that the parents request it and that there are at least fifteen students to make up a mother tongue class. For many years, Tamil and Mandarin were the only language communities acting on that provision. However, in more recent years, several indigenous people groups, concerned about what they perceive as a decline in the use of their ethnic language among the younger generation, have begun language development and/or mother tongue education programmes. In this paper the author looks at four language minority groups - the Kadazandusun and the Iranun in Sabah, the Than in Sarawak, and the Semai in peninsular Malaysia - and what they are doing to provide beginning education programmes for their children that use the children's own languages. Three of these mother-tongue programmes are presently in the formal education system. These educational trends aim not only at developing the students cognitively in their mother tongue and Malay thus achieving better results in school, but also at maintaining their unique cultural and linguistic heritage.



    McKay, Sandra Lee. 2003. Toward an appropriate EIL pedagogy: Reexamining common ELT assumptions. International Journal of Applied Linguistics. 13 (1): 1-22.

This article argues that the teaching of English as an international language (EIL) should be based on an entirely different set of assumptions than has typically informed English language teaching (ELT) pedagogy. To begin, several defining features of an international language are described. Because these features have altered the nature of English itself, the author maintains that the pedagogy for teaching English must also change. The author then describes how two developments - a dramatic increase in the number of second language speakers of English and a shift in the cultural basis of English - have significantly altered the nature of English. These changes challenge several common assumptions of ELT pedagogy, namely that: interest in learning of English is largely the result of linguistic imperialism; ELT research and pedagogy should be informed by native speaker models; the cultural content for ELT should be derived from the cultures of native English speakers; the culture of learning that informs communicative language teaching (CLT) provides the most productive method for ELT. The article ends by positing major assumptions that should inform a comprehensive theory of EIL pedagogy.



    Chen, Teresa. 2003. Reticence in class and on-line: Two ESL students' experiences with communicative language teaching. System. 31 (2): 259-282.

This study examines English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) undergraduate students' experiences with Communicative Language Teaching (CLT), supported by in-class tasks and after-class newsgroup discussion. The article presents the students' perceptions of and their feelings about their learning experiences with this teaching approach, as well as the frames of reference within which they performed in an ESL class. With a focus on the students' experiences with socialization in their respective home countries and adjustment to student life at a major Midwestern university in the United States, the research investigates the students' participation over time with respect to class communication. Adopting a naturalist approach, this study captures the communication-related events that are significant to the students and presents these insiders' perspectives. In-depth interviews were employed to explore the students' history in order to obtain a holistic understanding of cultural and personal aspects of their experiences that are related to class communication. The findings reveal the students' communicative styles and further address their coping with second-language acquisition and academic adaptation. The article concludes with recommendations for future research and instruction.



    Abrams, Zsuzsanna Ittzes. 2003. The effect of synchronous and asynchronous CMC on oral performance in German. The Modern Language Journal. 87 (2): 157-167.

It has been frequently suggested that computer-mediated-communication (CMC) can help learners improve their oral proficiency. This study tested that suggestion by comparing the performance of 3 groups of learners (a control group, a synchronous CMC group, and an asynchronous CMC group) on 3 oral discussions tasks during the course of 1 semester. The number of idea units and words, the lexical richness and diversity, and the syntactic complexity of learner language served as dependent variables. Although this study confirmed a previously reported increase in quantity of language produced by students in the synchronous CMC group compared to the other two groups, the asynchronous CMC group did not outperform the control group. Furthermore, analyses of the quality of language indicated no significant differences among the 3 groups either lexically or syntactically.



    Frantzen, Diana. 2003. Factors affecting how second language Spanish students derive meaning from context. The Modern Language Journal. 87 (2): 168-199.

Although first language (l.1) and second language (l.2) research has indicated that the meanings of unknown words can be derived from the contexts in which they occur, research has also found limitations to the value of context. Using data gathered in a classroom experiment on L2 vocabulary acquisition (Frantzen 1998), the present study sought to determine some of the reasons why the context in which a word appears does not always lead a language learner to an accurate interpretation of its meaning. It expands the existing research by using a natural, intact, unmanipulated text as the context (an aspect underrepresented in current L2 word inferencing literature). Analysis of the students' answers, their self-reported guessing strategies, the contexts in which the words appeared, and the text's glossing revealed that the `blame' for the incorrect answers may be placed on: (1) the context itself, (2) the students' behavior, and in a minor way (3) the story's glossing. Numerous patterns are presented and discussed in light of other l.1 and L2 research and new patterns are reported.



    Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove. 2003. Revitalisation of indigenous languages in education: Contextualising the Papua New Guinea Experience. Language and Education. 17 (2): 81-86.

This short article situates the following two papers (by David Klaus and by Yasuko Nagai and Ronah Lister) on Papua New Guinea in the context of discussions about maintenance and revitalisation of endangered languages, and about education through the medium of indigenous and minority languages. Two of the three authors represent organisations (the World Bank and the Summer Institute of Linguistics) which, despite their very different ways of working (one at a macro-level, with more structural issues, the other at a micro-level, in continuation of the old missionary tradition) have an ambivalent reputation among many who support endangered languages. The two papers present one of the globally more impressive large-scale experiments of mother tongue medium teaching today. They show from several perspectives both what the factors enabling this experiment were, and how complex the issues are on the ground. Despite solid research evidence, most indigenous peoples and minorities are still educated subtractively: the dominant languages are learned at the cost of the mother tongues. Papua New Guinea, the country with the largest number of languages in the world, shows that it is possible to turn the tide if the political will exists.



    Nagai, Yasuko and Ronah Lister. 2003. What is our culture? What is our language? Dialogue towards the maintenance of indigenous culture and language in Papua New Guinea. Language and Education. 17 (2): 87 - 104.

Since the value of initial vernacular education has been recognised in the most recent education reform in Papua New Guinea (PNG), not only the Department of Education but also the local indigenous teachers and members of local nongovernment organisations (NGOs) have been trying to develop culturally more appropriate curricula and classroom practices in the nexus of western education and indigenous education. Despite their efforts, however, traditional culture and language are often dominated by Western culture, especially through the globalisation of English. In this rather threatening situation, three local elementary school teachers in the Milne Bay Province are trying to determine what is their real culture and their real language that needs to be passed on to their children. They also are trying to devise better ways to maintain their culture and language with the assistance of an expatriate consultant. This paper portrays the experience of their dilemmas and frustrations, as well as their joys, throughout the process of innovation. This study thus offers positive insights that may inspire educators in other contexts to help various indigenous groups to maintain their culture and language.



    Klaus, David. 2003. The use of indigenous languages in early basic education in Papua New Guinea: A model for elsewhere?. Language and Education. 17 (2): 105 -111.

The small island nation of Papua New Guinea (PNG) in the South Pacific offers a little-known practical example of how a small, multilingual country with limited resources has developed a package of strategies for dealing with the challenges posted by multilingualism and using its multiplicity of languages in education as a tool for improving teaching and learning, saving resources, and moving towards Education for All. This paper is based on knowledge the author gained from working on education in Papua New Guinea over a period of six years (February 1995 to January 2001) and some 11 visits made to Papua New Guinea during that time.



    Aumston, Alan. 2003. Learning to teach English in Hong Kong: The opinions of teachers in training. Language and Education. 17 (2): 112-137.

This paper presents the findings from a longitudinal study of teachers learning to teach English in Hong Kong secondary schools who were enrolled on the BA course in Teaching English as a Second Language (BATESL) at the City University of Hong Kong. The purpose of the study is to try to determine the extent to which the beliefs and knowledge of preservice English teachers change between leaving secondary school and entering the teaching profession. A detailed questionnaire was completed by a cohort of student teachers as they began the course in 1994 and again upon graduation from it in 1997. The results of the comparison between the two administrations reveal that pre-service teachers' beliefs and knowledge are based on their experiences as students within the education system; are strongly influenced by their time in classrooms during practice teaching; but are changed relatively less by the training that they receive in their BA course.



    Wildsmith-Cromarty, Rosemary. 2003. Mutual apprenticeship in the learning and teaching of an additional language. Language and Education. 17 (2): 138 - 154.

Interdisciplinary research into course revision and development at tertiary level can be transformational and empowering when it involves a role reversal which takes the learner's perspective into account. This paper discusses a case study in the learning and teaching of Zulu as an additional language. It involved the organic development of a mutually supportive relationship between two lecturers from separate disciplines who assumed multiple identities in order to more effectively collaborate in the revision and development of two undergraduate courses: a more communicatively oriented course for non-mother tongue students learning Zulu as an additional language, and a course in learning how to teach Zulu as an additional language to school learners. For this purpose, one of the teachers involved in the study became a learner of Zulu as an additional language for three years in order to monitor her own learning experiences and those of her fellow learners. During the second phase of the research, one of the Zulu teachers joined a postgraduate course in Applied Language Studies as an apprenticed language specialist. This mutual experience of role reversal greatly enriched course design and the research process itself.


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