Reading skills for academic study: Survey the text - exercise

Exercise 1

Look at the extracts from the following text and identify them. Which of the following are included?

abstract

    

acknowledgments

 

appendices

 

author

 

blurb

 

date of publication

 

details about author

 

edition

 

foreword

 

index

 

ISBN

 

list of contents

 

list of references

 

place of publication

 

preface

 

publisher

 

reviewers' comments

 

sub-title

 

title

 

1.

Front Cover

2.

PAPERS IN

LINGUISTICS

1934-1951

BY

J. R. FIRTH

Sometime Professor of General Linguistics

University of London










LONDON
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS
NEW YORK TORONTO

3.


Oxford University Press, Ely House, London W. 1

GLASGOW NEW YORK TORONTO MELBOURNE WELLINGTON
CAPE TOWN SALISBURY IBADAN NAIROBI LUSAKA ADDIS ABABA
BOMBAY CALCUTTA MADRAS KARACHI LAHORE DACCA
KUALA LUMPUR SINGAPORE HONG KONG TOKYO










First edition 1957
Reprinted 1958, 1961, 1964 and 1969













Printed in Great Britain

4.

PREFACE

The first Chair of General Linguistics in this country was established in the University of London in 1944 at the School of Oriental and African Studies, with which I had been connected since 1931 and which I had served since 1938. On my appointment to the Chair, coupled with the Headship of the Department of Phonetics and Linguistics, there followed a period of development both of staff and teaching, during which the subject of General Linguistics was firmly established in London.
During the last six or seven years the papers here collected proved useful, both to staff and students, and they are frequently referred to in the published work of other members of the Department, of colleagues, and of former students. A bibliography of these works is given in the Appendix. With two exceptions, only minor alterations have been made. A number of phonetic texts have been omitted from ‘Alphabets and Phonology in India and Burma’ as originally published in the Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, and owing to the necessity of making new blocks for the article on ‘Word Palatograms and Articulation’, plates nos. 6 and 7 present a new series of film strips. This in turn required new descriptive material and a restatement of the results.
The proved usefulness of these papers has encouraged me to offer them for publication in the present form, which has been made possible by a subvention from the Publications Fund of the School, on the recommendation of the Publications Committee. In expressing my gratitude to the School, may I hope that readers in their turn may be encouraged to find more than a sum of separate papers by following up the general subjects collected in the Index, which is designed as a key to continuity and development.

J. R. FIRTH

5.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

For permission to reproduce the sixteen papers, grateful acknowledgements are due to three learned Societies and to the Editors of the Proceedings of two International Congresses, as follows:
   (i) The Philological Society for ‘The Technique of Semantics’, ‘The English School of Phonetics’, ‘Sounds and Prosodies’, and ‘General Linguistics and Descriptive Grammar’.
  (ii) The English Association for ‘Modes of Meaning’.
 (iii) The Royal Anthropological Institute for ‘The Principles of Phonetic Notation in Descriptive Grammar’.
  (iv) The Editors of the Proceedings of the Second International Congress of Phonetic Sciences and the International Phonetic Association for ‘Phonological Features of some Indian Languages’ and ‘The Word “Phoneme”’
And to the Editors and publishers of the following journals:
   (i) The Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies for ‘Alphabets and Phonology in India and Burma’, ‘The Structure of the Chinese Mono-syllable in a Hunanese Dialect (Changsha)’, ‘Word-Palatograms and Articulation’, and ‘Improved Techniques in Palatography and Kymography’.
  (ii) Archivum Linguisticum for ‘Atlantic Linguistics’.
  (iii) English Studies for ‘The Use and Distribution of Certain English Sounds’.
  (iv) Lingua for ‘The Semantics of Linguistic Science’.
  (v) The Sociological Review for ‘Personality and Language in Society’.

J. R. FIRTH

6.

CONTENTS

1.

THE WORD ‘PHONEME’. Le Ma�tre Phon�tique, No. 46, 1934 ‘

1

2.

THE PRINCIPLES OF PHONETIC NOTATION IN DESCRIPTIVE GRAMMAR. Congr�s International des Sciences anthropologiques et ethnologiques, 1934

3

3.

THE TECHNIQUE OF SEMANTICS. Transactions of the Philological Society, 1935

7

4.

THE USE AND DISTRIBUTION OF CERTAIN ENGLISH SOUNDS. English Studies, xvii. I , 1935

34

5.

PHONOLOGICAL FEATURES OF SOME INDIAN LANGUAGES. The Proceedings of the Second International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, 1935

47

6.

ALPHABETS AND PHONOLOGY IN INDIA AND BURMA. Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies, viii. 2 and 3, 1936

54

7.

THE STRUCTURE OF THE CHINESE MONOSYLLABLE IN A HUNANESE DIALECT (CHANGSHA). Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies, viii. 4, 1937

76

8.

THE ENGLISH SCHOOL OF PHONETICS. Transactions of the Philological Society, 1946

92

9.

SOUNDS AND PROSODIES. Transactions of the Philological Society, 1948

121

10.

THE SEMANTICS OF LINGUISTIC SCIENCE. Lingua, i. 4, 1948

139

11.

WORD-PALATOGRAMS AND ARTICULATION. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, xii. 3 and 4, 1948

148

12.

ATLANTIC LINGUISTICS. Archivum Linguisticum, i. 2, 1949

156

13.

IMPROVED TECHNIQUES IN PALATOGRAPHY AND KYMOGRAPHY. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, xiii. 3, 1950

173

14.

PERSONALITY AND LANGUAGE IN SOCIETY. The Sociological Review, xlii. 2, 1950

177

15

MODES OF MEANING. Essays and Studies (The English Association), 1951

190

16.

GENERAL LINGUISTICS AND DESCRIPTIVE GRAMMAR. Transactions of the Philological Society, 1951

216

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF OTHER WORKS BASED ON SIMILAR PRINCIPLES AND METHODS

229

 

INDEX

231

7.

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF OTHER WORKS BASED ON SIMILAR PRINCIPLES AND METHODS

CARNOCHAN, J. A Study in the Phonology of an Igbo Speaker, B.S.O.A.S. xii. 2, 1948.

A Study of Quantity in Hausa, ibid. xiii. 4, 1951.

Glottalization in Hausa, T.P.S., 1952.

HENDERSON, Miss E. J. A. Notes on the Syllable Structure of Lushai, B.S.O.A.S. xii. 3 and 4, 1948.

A Phonetic Study of Western Ossetic (Digoron), ibid. xiii. i, 1949.

Prosodies in Siamese, Asia Major, i. 2, 1949.

Digoron Word-List (with H. W. BAILEY), B.S.O.A.S. xiii. z, 1950.

The Phonology of Loanwords in some South-East Asian Languages, T.P.S., 1951.

The Main Features of Cambodian Pronunciation, B.S.O.A.S. xiv. i, 1952.

MITCHELL, T. F. The Active Participle in an Arabic Dialect of Cyrenaica, ibid.

Particle-Noun Complexes in a Berber Dialect (Zuara), ibid. xv. 2, 1953.

Writing Arabic. Oxford University Press, 1953.

Introduction to Egyptian Colloquial Arabic. Oxford University Press, 1956.

PALMER, F. R. The ‘Broken Plurals’ of Tigrinya, B.S.O.A.S. xvii. 3, 1955.

‘Openness’ in Tigre: a Problem in Prosodic Statement, ibid. xviii. 3, 1956.

ROBINS, R. H. Ancient and Mediaeval Grammatical Theory in Europe. Bell & Sons, Ltd., London, 1951.

Notes on the Phonetics of the Georgian Word (with Mrs. N. WATERSON). B.S.O.A.S. xiv. I, 1952.

A Problem in the Statement of Meaning, Lingua, iii. 2, 1952.

Noun and Verb in Universal Grammar, Language, vol. 28, no. 3, pt. I , 1952.

The Phonology of the Nasalized Verbal Forms in Sundanese, B.S.O.A.S. xv. I, 1953.

Formal Divisions in Sundanese, T.P.S., 1953.

Five Yurok Songs: a Musical and Textual Analysis (with Miss N. MCLEOD). B.S.O.A.S. xviii. 3, 1956.

SCOTT, N. C. The Monosyllable in Szechuanese, ibid. xii. i, 1947.

A Study in the Phonetics of Fijian, ibid. xii. 3 and 4, 1948.

A Dictionary of Sea Dayak. School of Oriental and African Studies, 1956.

A Phonological Analysis of the Szechuanese Monosyllable, B.S.O.A.S. xviii. 3, 1956.

SHARP, A. E. A Tonal Analysis of the Disyllabic Noun in the Machame Dialect of Chaga, ibid. xvi. i, 1954.

SPRIGG, R. K. Verbal Phrases in Lhasa Tibetan. I, ibid; II, ibid. 2, 1954; III, ibid. 3, 1954.

The Tonal System of Tibetan (Lhasa Dialect) and the Nominal Phrase, ibid. xvii. i, 1955.

WATERSON, Mrs. N. Notes on the Phonetics of the Georgian Word (with Mr. R. H. ROBINs), B.S.O.A.S. xiv. i, 1952.

Some Aspects of the Phonology of the Nominal Forms of the Turkish Word, ibid. xviii. 3, 1956.

8.

INDEX

Aelfric, 100-1.

Alliteration, 194, 198, 203.

Alphabetum anglicum, 106-7.

Alternances, 5-2, 3-5, 36-37, 38, 47-52, 71-74, 80-91, 222-3.

American Indian languages, 162, 163-4, 167, 172.

American language, the, 157 et seq.

American Oriental Society, the, 161-2, 164, 166.

American Philosophical Society, the, 160, 161, 163, 164,

Arabic alphabet, 111 112.

Aspiration, 59, 63, 64.

Bedeutungslehre, 8.

Beligatti, C., 59-60.

Bell, Alexander Graham, 95, 96, 110, 119, 166.

Bell, Alexander Melville, 94, 95, 96, 102, 110, 111, 113, 116-19, 166.

Bloomfield, L., 15-16, 167-8, 579.

Bréal, 8, 11-12, 13, 15, 16, 17.

Bright, Timothy, 102-3, 104-6.

Bullokar, W. (1586), 98-99, 107.

Butler, Charles (1633), 108.

Cardinalization, 146, 148-55.

Carpani, M., 62-66.

Categories, 145, 223, 225, 226, z228.

Chambers, R. W., 97.

Character:

(i) Chinese, 103, 104, 105.

(ii) real, 103.

(iii) universal, 102-3.

(iv) general, 103, 106.

Chiming, 194.

Citation, 212, 224.

Coles, Elisha (1674), 101-2.

Collocation, 194-214.

Consonant, 145-6.

Constructs, i 90.

Contextualization, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, 13, 14, i8, 59, 20, 25, 24, 2528, 29-33, 35-46, 71-74, 122, 192-4, 195, 597, 199, 201, 203, 205, 222, 226, 228.

Conversation, 31-32.

Dalgarno, 104, 106, 109-10.

Darmesteter, 8, 9, 11, 55.

de Courtenay, Baudouin, 1, 57, 71, 167, 218.

De Saussure, F., 2, 8, 16, 17, 71, 121, 144, 167, 179-81, 183, 190-1, 217.

Devanagari, 110, 111, 112, 125.

Diacritics:

(i) phonetic, 8o.

(ii) prosodic, 79, 9’, 527.

(iii) syllabic, 76, 8o, 86.

(iv) general, 127.

Difference, differentiation, 3, 5, 6, 25, 39, 48, 49, 50, 51; differential, 52, 80, 85-86, 87, 88, 89, 91, 133.

Digraphs, 59.

Distribution, 10, 20, 37, 42, 45, 49, 527, 131, 195, 206, 222.

Dualism, 19, 217, 219, 227.

du Ponceau, P. S., 162, 163.

Duration, 174.

Edgerton, Franklin, 165

Elements, 20, 21, 24, 76, 8z, 83, 84, 89, 90, 133, 534, 222, 223, 224, 227, 228.

Ellis, A. J., 94, 109, 110-11, 113, 115, 116, 166.

Etymology, 8-9, 14, 15.

Facts (statement of), 140, 144, 145.

Formal conditions, 24, 223.

Franklin, Benjamin, 158, 160, 161.

Function, 19, 20-21, 24, 26-27, 31, 33, 71, 72, 143, 222, 224, 227.

Gardiner, A., 7, 18, 24, 181.

Gemination, 174.

General linguistics, 7, 143, 156, 170-1, 190.

Grammar (descriptive), 3, 5-6, 7, 16.

Grammar (universal), 140.

Grammatical designation, 7, 11, 54, 192.

Haldeman, S., 114-16, 125, 166.

Hart, John (1569), 98, 99-100, 101, 111.

Historical principle, 7-8, 12, 16, 17.

Hjelmslev, Louis, 540, 2i7-I8, 219-20, 221, 227-8.

Holder, William (1669), 108-9, 110, 111, 116.

Hume, Alexander (1617), 95-96, 97.

Instances, 527, 137, 173.

Institutions (linguistic), 122, 191, 192.

International Phonetic Association, 93-94, 145, 167, 169.

Isolate, 122, 147, 190, 192, 198.

Jakobson, Roman, 167.

Jespersen, Otto, 2, 24, 169, 179, 259.

Johnson, Samuel, 7, 9, 11, 12-13, 57, 142, 183.

Jones, Daniel, 2, 93, 94, 95, 97, 146, 559, 167, 169, 170.

Jones, Sir William, 17, 106, 107, 110, 111-14, 116, 125-6, 161, 165.

Junction, 49, 123.

King’s English, the, 157-8.

Kruschevski, 1-2, 218.

Labio-velarization, 8o, 86, 88; see also w-features.

Language community, 186.

Lear, Edward, 194, 195.

Lepsius, 114, 115, 165.

Letters, 22.

Level, levels, 24, 25, 26, 144, 145, 170-1 182, 183, 192, 193, 194, 195, 197, 198, 201, 202, 205, 206, 214, 222, 224, 227.

Lexicography, lexicographical, lexical, 7, 19, 20, 26, 36, 37, 41, 42, 46, 49, 120, 192, 227.

Linearity, 147.

Linguistic analysis, 70, 144, 190.

Malinowski, B., 30, 143, 169, 170, 181, 182.

Meaning, meanings:

(i) applied, 9, 10, 12;

(ii) central, 9;

(iii) change of, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 56;

(iv) component of, 7, 10, 14, i8, 19, 20, 24, 26, 33, 192

(v) domain of, 9;

(vi) essential, so;

(vii) general, 7, 32, 33, 190, 214, 227, 228;

(viii) grammatical, 11, 24, 197;

(ix) mode of, 191, 193, 194, 197, 198, 200, 213

(x) original, 9, 10, 12

(xi) primary, [denotation],11, 12

(xii) secondary [connotation], 11;

(xiii) specialized, 12.

Meillet, A., 9-10, 12, 14, 121, 179, 180-1, 218.

Morphology, 14, 15, 18, 19, 23, 24, 37, 38, 41, 45, 50.

Multiple definition, 10-11.

Multiple statements, 192.

Murray, Lindley, 100, 110, 127-8, 158-60.

Nasalization, 51, 59, 62, 71, 8o, 84, 85, 88, 89, 134.

New English Dictionary (Oxford), 7, 8, 9, II, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 28.

Nomenclature, 140-1.

Notation, 3, 47-48, 49, 79, 85, 91, 123, 124, 125-1, 133, 136, 141, 146.

Ogden, C. K., 10, 16, 19, 168-9.

Onomatopoeia, 192, 194.

Paradigm, 121, 219, 227.

Passy, Paul, 93-94.

Peanius, C., 60-62.

Person, personality, 141, 142 ,143, 144, 171, 181, 182, 183-5, 186, 187, 188, 189.

Philological Society, the, 7, 8, 92, 102, 116, 119, 120.

Phonaesthetic, 39, 41, 44, 45, 73, 194, 196, 197, 198, 199, 201, 228.

Phonematic, 122, 123, 127, 128, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 146, 192, 193.

Phoneme (first use in English), 21.

Phoneme, 1-2, 3-4, 5, 21, 38, 45, 48, 51, 71, 122, 123, 125, 128, 145, 167.

Phonemics, 145, 167, 219, 222, 226.

Phones, 4, 145, 146, 147.

Phonetics, 21-25, 34, 35, 37, 47-48.

Phonetic sequence, 73.

Phonetic transcription, 148.

Phonic, 226, 228.

Phonology, 34-35, 192 ; see also Phoneme, Phonemics, Phonetics, Phonematic, Prosody.

Pickering, John, 161, 162-3.

Pitman, I., 102, 106, 108, 109.

Place, 35, 76-77, 80, 91.

Prosody, prosodies, prosodic, 79, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 146, 192, 193, 194, 196, 197, 198, 199, 200, 201, 207, 208, 224, 226.

Punctuation, 6.

Quantity, 127, 128, 129, 130, 174.

Relations, 19, 21, 127, 128, 130, 137, 182, 219, 220, 221.

Relations (contextual), 19, 20, 21.

Relations (statement of), 220, 228.

Retroflex consonants, 49, 59, 61, 150-1.

Richards, I. A., 10, 16, 19, 168-9.

Ritual (social), 28, 3 1-32.

Robins, R. H., 216.

Roget, S., 106.

Roles, 28, 29.

Royal Society, the, 160.

Sapir, 24, 167, 172.

Scatter, formal, 13, 16.

Segments, 127, 137, 147.

Semantic, 7, 15.

Semantics, 7, 8, 13, 15-16, 17, 18, 19, 21, 23, 25.

Series, 71, 72, 73, 228.

Shorthand, 102, 103, 104, 106.

Situation, 3, 25-32, 33, 35, 37, 39, 42, 45, 75, 144, 181-3, 192, 197, 199, 203, 205, 208, 223, 224, 226, 228.

Skeat, 8.

Smith, Sir Thomas (1568), 98, 106-7, 108, 111, 157.

Smithsonian Institution, the, 162, 163.

Sommerfelt, A., 221.

Speech fellowship, 186, 187.

Sperber, H., 10, 12, 13.

Statement, 140, 141, 145, 146, 147.

Straumann, H., i8, 19, 38.

Structuralism, 219, 220.

Structure, 36, 121, 122, 123, 125, 126, 128, 130, 131, 132, 136, 142, 143, 146, 222, 223, 224, 226, 227.

Stylistics, 190, 194, 196, 198, 202, 204, 206, 212.

Substitution, 5, 20-21, 22, 24, 25, 26, 27, 37, 39, 40, 42, 45, 48, 50, 71.

Sweet, 2, 92, 94, 95, 102, 110, 111, 119, 120, 141, 146, 159, 166 - 7, 169, 183, 218.

Swinburne, 196-203.

Syllabic features, 80.

Syllable, 37, 48, 63, 64, 76, 77, 78, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 88, 90, 91, 122, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 146, 222, 226.

Syntax, 192.

System, 40, 43, 47, 73, 74, 122, 123, 128, 130, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 139, 143, 144, 145, 147.

Systematic, 73, 139, 187.

Systemic, 35, 36, 143, 144, 545, 147, 187.

(i) Monosystemic, 121, 123, 137.

(ii) Polysystemic, 121, 137.

Terminology, 140-1.

Terms, see Units.

Texts, 75, 145, 192, 225.

Theory, 140, 141, 543, 144.

Time-track, 147.

Tongues of Men, 106, 160.

Transcription, 47, 51, 53, 146, 147.

Translation, 32, 593, 198, 224.

Trench, 9, 55.

Troubetzkoy, 167, 169, 179, 218.

Units (or terms), 37, 39, 40, 43, 47, 48, 51, 71, 72, 73, 74, 86, 89, 90, 95, 222.

Utterance, 145, 146, 147, 226.

Values, 35, 72.

Vowel, 545-6.

Vowel harmony, 5, 130, 134.

Wallis, Dr. John, 102, 108, 109, 115, 116.

Webster, Noah, 157-8, 160.

w-features, 133.

Wegener, P., 181-2.

Whitney, W. D., 111, 158, 165-166.

Wilkins, J. (1668), 103, 104, 105, 106.

Word (theory of), 5.

Words (focal, pivotal), 10, 13.

Words, pieces and phrases as wholes, 95, 121, 522, 130, 134, 537, 149, 150, 155, 173, 205, 204.

Wright, J., 93, 95, 120.

y-features, yotization, 60, 8o, 81, 81, 84, 85, 86, 89, 90, 91, 133.

Zipf, 11.

9.