Rhetorical Functions in Academic Speaking: Cause and Effect

Exercise 1

Read the following text and identify the cause and effect relationships.

Almost everyone experiences headaches, with their characteristic pain or throbbing sensation in the head, are an extremely common complaint, at some time or other. Occasionally, they are a symptom of an underlying disorder, but, if they occur on their own, developing gradually and clearing up with no side-effects, they are probably totally harmless, apart from the discomfort they cause. Probably the commonest form of headache is caused by tension, from the contraction of the muscles of the neck, shoulders and scalp. The second commonest is the result of the swelling of local blood vessels. Many factors can contribute to this. These range from stress, sleeplessness and drinking and eating too much, to noise and stuffy rooms, but, as far as tension headaches are concerned, one of the commonest causes is poor posture. The muscles of the neck become tense and sore because they have to support the considerable weight of the head in an awkward position. Another common cause is eye strain. This can be due to the simple need for glasses. If headaches persist, it is as well to go to an optician for a check-up, and to work in a good light.

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