Citing sources: Exercises

Exercise 12

Incorporate an example from the Ridgeway quotation to support the summary of Ridgeways' ideas. Decide on a suitable place to include the quotation. Make any changes necessary to the text.


The recommendations based on a text-based approach are:

  1. Practice is the most important thing. The more listening the better, and the subskills will take care of themselves as they become automatized.
  2. Whilst guessing skills are useful, learners learn the skills of listening comprehension from what is comprehensible to them. They need to practise listening comprehension, not listening incomprehension (automatization again). Graded texts, not necessarily authentic, will be the fastest way forward for them. They will probably get plenty of practice in listening to texts which are largely incomprehensible to them anyway.
  3. Teachers do not need to get too hung up on syntax in listening skills lessons. In listening, as in reading syntactic cues are often overshadowed by semantic and pragmatic cues. Of course, listening is an important component of the grammar lesson, but not vice versa.

(T. Ridgeway (200). In an article titled "Listening strategies - I beg your pardon? It was in the journal, ELT Journal, volume 54, pages 179-185. The quotation is from pages 183-184.)


Some more meaning-focused approaches have been suggested in recent years. Ridgway (2000) advocated extensive listening, flooding the learners with graded comprehensible input.

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