Citing sources: Exercises

Exercise 5

Incorporate the quotation in the text at a suitable point. Decide on a suitable place to include the quotation. Make any changes necessary to the text.


The assertion that the discrepancy between the average white and average black I.Q. in the United States is due in some part to genetic differences is equivalent to the assertion that if there were no differences in the environments of whites and blacks there would still be a difference in their average intelligence. It may not be productive to examine this assertion with correlational studies of samples drawn from United States society as it exists. Perhaps a better method would be to attempt experimental evaluation of how I.Q. differences would change if in fact the environments of blacks and whites were equivalent. In other words, the best way to settle this controversy might be to eliminate racism.

(Robyn Dawes (1972). I. Q.: Methodology and other issues. Science, Vol. 178, pages 229-230. Quoted from page 230.]


The evidence indicates that I.Q.s can be changed. No one knows by how much. The new racial determinists' attempt to prove that the change cannot be as large as 15 points will never be convincing if an effort has not been made to bridge the gap by equalizing every environmental variable that is known to have some influence upon the test scores. What this would amount to, of course, is nothing less than the elimination of black subordination down to the last trace of bigotry and discrimination.

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