Academic writing style
Exercise 6: Noun-based phrases
Formal written English uses nouns more than verbs.
Rewrite the underlined parts of the following sentences using a
noun-based phrase instead of the "wh" clause.
e.g. Many futile attempts have been made to teach animals to speak how
Many futile attempts have been made to teach animals to speak in human
- It is essential to discuss how much cultural and biological
evolution can be explained by similar principles.
- Many factors must be considered in explaining how fast the
population has grown in the developing countries.
- Classes differ greatly in how membership is established and
how fast membership changes.
- There are advantages and declines in labour productivity and both are
related to how much the population density is increasing.
- Anthony Eden, the Foreign Secretary, asked them how much the
full internationalisation of civil aviation was possible.
- It follows that the key issue is how much there was a
significant Soviet threat to those supplies.
- But even in this he is a failure as he can't remember a word, nor does
he know why he is going to be executed.
- I cannot avoid the feeling why we were disenchanted was simply
because of the kinds of problems we were given.
- On the surface, why women and domestic architecture were
associated were obvious.
- Menzel (1973) has shown that non-speaking chimpanzees can convey
where food is to one another.
- It is easiest to list foods and drinks according to where they are
- How much precaution is taken is regularly reviewed in the light
of the patient's progress.
- The week following admission appears to be when the risk is
- It is important to remember that whatever type of subsequent care is to
occur, the period after discharge may be when things are particularly
- When the riots occurred, 36 per cent of the workforce in
Handsworth was out of work.
- These star charts were provided to enable the deceased to tell what
time it is and what day it is.
- After leaving the town, Tom Owen could at first find nowhere for his
family to rest at all.
- When I was fifteen or sixteen none of my peers were interested
in such matters.
- How long the prisoner stays in prison is determined by someone
who has not heard any representations by or on behalf of the prisoner on
grounds which the prisoner does not know.
- How big this group is varies in different centres.
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