English for Academic Purposes: Materials

Reading skills for academic study

1 Understanding meaning

1.1 Deducing the meaning of unfamiliar words and word groups

1.2 Understanding relations within the sentence / complex sentences

1.3 Understanding explicitly stated information

1.4 Recognising implications: information not explicitly stated

1.5 Understanding conceptual meaning, e.g. comparison, purpose, cause, effect

2 Understanding relationships in the text

2.1 Understanding the communicative value of sentences

2.2 Understanding relations between the parts of a text

2.3 Understanding text structure

2.4 Understanding punctuation

2.5 Understanding text by going outside it

3 Understanding important points

3.1 Distinguishing the main ideas from supporting detail

3.2 Recognising unsupported claims and claims supported by evidence: fact from opinion

3.3 Extracting salient points to summarise

3.4 Selective extraction of relevant points

3.5 Following an argument

3.6 Reading critically / evaluating the text

4 Reading efficiently

4.0 Introduction

4.1 Surveying the textbook/manual

4.2 Surveying a chapter/article using first sentences of paragraphs

4.3 Surveying a chapter/article using first and last paragraphs

4.4 Skimming to get gist / general impression

4.5 Scanning to locate specifically required information

4.6 Reading quickly

5 Reading skills

5.1 Understanding graphs, tables etc.

5.2 Reference and library skills

5.3 Reading the assignment: using source materials

5.4 Note taking

5.5 Reading notices and instructions

Materials

1 Understanding meaning

1.1. Deducing the meaning of unfamiliar words and word groups

Barr, Clegg & Wallace (1981)
Heaton & Dunmore (1992, chaps. 1-3)
Long, Allen, Cyr, Pomeroy, Ricard, Spada & Vogel (1980, pp. 21-25, 55-57, 93-96, 113-115)
McGovern (1994)
Seal (1997, chap.1.1)
Sellen (1982)
Slaght (2004, pp. 13-14)
Swan (1976, chap. 2)
Upton (2004, chaps, 1 & 2)
Walter (1982)
Williams, R.,(1982, pp. 3- )
Yorkey (1982 pp. 59-74)

1.2. Understanding relations within the sentence /complex sentences

Greenall & Swan (1986, pp. 8, 9, 25, 28, 34)
Moore (1979a, 1979b)
Walter (1982)
Williams, R. (1982)

1.3. Understanding explicitly stated information

Davies & Whitney (1985)
Greenall & Swan (1986)
Sim & Laufer-Dvorkin (1982, chap. 5)
Walter (1982)

1.4. Recognising implications: information not explicitly stated

Davies & Whitney (1985)
Glendinning & Holmström (1992, chap. 5)
Greenall & Swan (1986)
Sim & Laufer-Dvorkin (1982, chap. 5)
Slaght (2004, p. 28)
Walter (1982)

1.5. Understanding conceptual meaning: e.g. comparison, purpose, cause, effect

Adkins & McKean (1985)
Bachman (1986)
Cooper (1979)
Moore (1979a, 1979b, 1980a, 1980b)

2 Understanding relationships in the text

2.1. Understanding the communicative value of sentences

Moore (1979a, 1979b, 1980a, 1980b)
Slaght (2004, pp. 19-20)

2.2. Understanding relations between parts of a text

Bachman (1986)
Glendinning & Holmström (1992)
Long, Allen, Cyr, Pomeroy, Ricard, Spada & Vogel (1980, pp.73-75)
McGovern (1994)
Moore (1979b, 1980a, 1980b)
Morrow (1980)
Slaght (2004, p. 19)
Upton (2004, chap. 3)
Williams, R. (1982)

2.3. Understanding text structure

Glendinning & Holmström (1992, pp. 12, 27-29, 60-65, 76-78, 87-90, 98-99, 110-111)
McGovern (1994, pp. 38-39, 50-52)
Upton (2004, chaps. 4-8)
Slaght (2004, p. 12)
Wallace (1980, chap. 2)
Wallace (2004, chap. 1)
Williams, R. (1982)

2.4. Understanding punctuation

Collinson (1982, chap. 8)
Jordan (1990, pp. 97-98, 107-109)
McArthur (1984a, 1984b)
Payne (1983)

2.5. Understanding the text by going outside it

Haarman, Leech & Murray (1988)
Glendinning & Holmström (1992)
Slaght (2004, p. 23)

3 Understanding important points

3.1. Distinguishing the main ideas from supporting detail

Abdulaziz & Stover (1989)
Glendinning & Holmström (1992, chap. 4)
McGovern (1994)
Godfrey (2010, pp. 65-70)
Rosenthal & Rowland (1986)
Sim & Laufer-Dvorkin (1982, chaps. 1 & 2)
Slaght (2004, pp. 26, 35-39)

3.2. Recognising unsupported claims and claims supported by evidence: fact from opinion

Bailey (2011, pp. 23-27)
Sim & Laufer-Dvorkin (1982, chap. 3)
McGovern (1994)

3.3. Extracting salient points to summarise

Greenall & Swan (1986)
Hamp-Lyons & Courter (1984, pp. 17-21)
McGovern (1994)
Swan (1975)
Swan (1976)
Walter (1982)

3.4. Selective extraction of relevant points

Greenall & Swan (1986)
Hamp-Lyons & Courter (1984, pp. 8-16)
McGovern (1994)
Slaght (2004, pp. 17-19) 

3.5. Following an argument

Sullivan (1979)
McGovern (1994)

3.6. Reading critically / evaluating a text

Bailey (2011, pp. 24-29)
Gillett, Hammond & Martala (2009, pp. 62-63)
Glendinning & Holmström (1992, chap. 9)
Godfrey (2010, pp. 57-82)
Greenall & Swan (1986)
Northedge (1990, chap. 2.2)
Seal (1997, p. 90)

4 Reading efficiently

4.0 Reading Efficiently: Introduction

Bailey (2011, pp. 19-20)
Barnes (1992, chap. 5)
Clanch & Ballard (1992, chap. 3)
Cottrell (1999, pp. 109-115)
Davies & Whitney (1985)
Gillett, Hammond & Martala (2009, ch. 5)
Godfrey (2010, pp, 13-26)
Heaton & Dunmore (1992, chap. 11)
Open University (1979, chap. 3)
Slaght (2004, pp. 7-9, 62-63)
Sullivan (1979, chap. 2)
Upton (2004, chap. 9)
Waters & Waters (1995, chap. 6)

4.1. Surveying the text

Bailey (2011, pp. 19-22)
Gillett, Hammond & Martala (2009, pp. 49-58)
Haarman, Leech & Murray (1988)
Rowntree (1976, chap. 3)
Smith & Smith (1988, chap. 4.2)
Trzeciak & Mackay (1994, chap. 1)
Wallace (1980, pp. 9-20)
Wallace (2004, pp. 11-21)

4.2. Surveying a chapter/article using first sentences of paragraphs

Gillett, Hammond & Martala (2009, pp. 69-70)
Rosenthal & Rowland (1986, chap. 3)
Smith & Smith (1988, chap. 4.3)
Trzeciak & Mackay (1994, chap. 1)
Wallace (1980, pp. 21-25)

4.3. Surveying a chapter/article using first and last paragraphs

Gillett, Hammond & Martala (2009, pp. 70-72)
Trzeciak & Mackay (1994, chap. 1)
Wallace (1980, pp. 25-27)

4.4. Skimming to get gist / general impression

Gillett, Hammond & Martala (2009, pp. 63-73)
Greenall & Swan (1986)
Haarman, Leech & Murray (1988)
Heaton & Dunmore (1992, chap. 11)
Long, Allen, Cyr, Pomeroy, Ricard, Spada & Vogel (1980, pp. 3-5)
McGovern (1994)
Moore (1979b)
Morrow (1980)
Rosenthal & Rowland (1986, chap. 4)
Seal (1997)
Slaght (2004, pp. 7-8, 25, 34-35, 42)
Yorkey (1982, pp. 134-144)
Wallace (2004, pp. 9-24) 

4.5. Scanning to locate specifically required information

Gillett, Hammond & Martala (2009, pp. 67-68)
Greenall & Swan (1986)
Haarman, Leech & Murray (1988)
Long, Allen, Cyr, Pomeroy, Ricard, Spada & Vogel (1980, pp. 41-43)
McGovern (1994)
Moore (1979b)
Morrow (1980)
Rosenthal & Rowland (1986, chap. 4)
Smith & Smith (1988, chap. 4.1)
Wallace (1980, pp. 27-37)
Wallace (2004, pp. 25-38)

4.6. Reading quickly

Abdulaziz & Stover (1989)
Buzan (1971)
De Leeuw & De Leeuw (1965)
Fry (1963)
Morrow (1980)
Northedge (1990, chap. 2.3)
Rowntree (1976, chap. 5)
Yorkey (1982, pp. 95-122)

5 Reading skills

5.1. Understanding graphs, tables etc.

Heaton & Dunmore (1992, chap. 12)
Rosenthal & Rowland (1986, chap. 3)
Sim & Laufer-Dvorkin (1982, chap. 6)
Slaght (2004, pp. 49-50)
Wallace (1980, pp. 38-51)
Wallace (2004, ch. 3)
Yorkey (1982, pp. 167-182)

5.2. Reference and library skills

Cottrell (1999, chap. 6)
Gillett, Hammond & Martala (2009, ch. 4)
Hamp-Lyons & Courter (1984, chaps. 2 & 4)
O'Brien & Jordan (1985, chaps. 2 & 3)
McGovern (1994)
Rosenthal & Rowland (1986, chaps. 1, 2 & 3)
Smith & Smith (1988, chap. 3)
Wallace (1980, chap. 5)
Yorkey (1982, chap. 8)

5.3. Reading the assignment: using source materials

De Leeuw & De Leeuw (1965)
Gillett, Hammond & Martala (2009, ch. 4)
Godfrey (2010, pp. 13-45)
Haarman & Freeman (1988, chap. 3)
Sullivan (1979, chap. 1)
McGovern (1994)
Moore (1980b, chaps. 5, 6 & 7)
Yorkey (1982, pp. 154-164)

5.4. Note taking

Adkins & McKean (1985, chap. 2)
Bailey (2011, pp. 43-49)
Cottrell (1999, pp. 115-121)
Gillett, Hammond & Martala (2009, ch. 5)
Godfrey (2010, pp. 85-105)
Harman & Freeman (1972, chap. 4)
Heaton & Dunmore (1992, chap. 5 &10)
Northedge (1990, chap. 7.5)
Open University (1979, chap. 4)
Rowntree (1976, chap. 7)
Slaght (2004, pp. 26, 40-41)
Sullivan (1979, chap. 1)
Upton (2004, chap. 11)
Wallace (1980, chap. 3)
Wallace (2004, ch . 2)

5.5 Reading notices and instructions

Davies & Whitney (1979)
Davies & Whitney (1981)
Forrester (1984)
Walter (1982)