English for Academic Purposes: Materials

Academic Writing

 1 Research and using the library

1.0 Introduction

1.0.0 Introduction

1.0.1 Doing research

1.1 Finding relevant information

1.1.1 Using catalogues

1.1.2 Using books and periodicals

1.1.3 Using bibliographies and indexes

1.2 Using sources

1.2.1 Making notes and writing up notes

1.2.2 Paraphrasing

1.2.3 Summarising

1.2.4 Synthesising

1.2.5 Quoting directly

1.2.6 Citation: Referring to sources

1.2.7 Writing a list of references

2 Writing descriptions of places, objects etc.

2.0 Writing descriptions:Introduction

2.1 Describing objects

2.2 Describing location and direction

2.3 Writing definitions

2.4 Classifying / categorising

2.5 Giving examples

2.6 Comparing and contrasting: similarities and differences

2.7 Reporting and narrating

3 Describing processes and developments

3.1 Expressing purpose, means and method

3.2 Expressing degrees of certainty

3.3 Expressing reasons and explanations / cause and effect

3.4 Describing developments and changes

3.5 Describing a sequence of events / time relations

3.6 Writing instructions

4 Writing critically: Developing an argument

4.0 Writing critically: Introduction

4.1 Presenting arguments, ideas and opinions

4.2 Expressing certainty and doubt

4.3 Supporting an argument: illustrating and exemplifying ideas

4.4 Refuting arguments, ideas and opinions

4.5 Offering evaluative comments on opinions and arguments

4.6 Drawing conclusions

5 Writing academic genres

5.0 Writing academic genres: Introduction

5.1 The format and layout of the research report

5.2 Describing aims and objectives

5.3 Describing procedures and methods

5.4 Presenting and discussing results

5.5 Describing graphs and charts

5.6 Drawing conclusions

5.7 Writing the literature review

5.8 Writing the introduction and abstract

5.9 Writing theses and dissertations

5.10 Other kinds of writing

6 Writing skills

6.0 Writing skills: Introduction

6.1 Organisation: presentation and layout

6.2 Spelling and punctuation

6.2.1 Punctuation

6.2.2 Spelling

6.3 Including graphs, charts and tables

6.4 Writing paragraphs

6.5 Writing introductions and conclusions

6.5.1 Writing introductions

6.5.2 Writing conclusions

6.6 Academic writing style

6.7 Accuracy: Revising & proofreading

6.8 The writing process

7 Answering assignment and exam questions

7.0 Answering questions: Introduction

7.1 Understanding the question

7.2 Planning the answer

7.3 The answer

7.4 Evaluating the answer

Materials

1. Research and using the library

1.0 Introduction

1.0.0 Introduction

Bell ( 1999, pp. 64-89)
Berry (1994, chap. 1)
Creme & Lea (1997, chap. 5)
Clanchy & Ballard (1992, chap. 3)

Courtney & Du (2015, chap. 5)
Dollahite & Haun (2006, pp. 135-154)
Drew & Bingham (1997, chaps. 5 & 16)
Good & Jensen (1995, chap. 8)
Gillett, Hammond & Martala (2009, ch. 4)
Hamp-Lyons & Courter(1984)
Harris (2011, chap. 2)
Heaton & Dunmore (1992, chap. 4)
Menasche (1997, chap. 2)
O'Brien & Jordan (1985, chap. 3)
Oshima & Hogue (1992, chap. 10)
McCormack & Slaght (2005, pp. 5-11, 28-34)
Pirie (1985, chap. 3)
Raimes (1999, part 2)
Reid (1994, chap. 9)
Romanoff (1991, pp. 11-18)
Rosenthal & Rowland (1986, chaps. 1, 2 & 3)
Smith & Smith (1988, chap. 3)
Wallace (2004, ch. 3)
Waters & Waters (1995, chap. 4)
Williams, R (1982., app. B)
Yorkey (1982, chap. 8)

1.0.1 Doing research

Bell (1999, pp. 99-169)
Cottrell (199, chap. 6)
Dollahite & Haun (2006, pp. 135-154)
Gillett, Hammond & Martala (2009, pp. 40-43)
Harris (2011, chap. 1)
Thomas (2011)
Zemach & Rumisek (2005, pp. 5-10)
Zobel (2004, pp. 157-204)

1.1. Finding relevant information

  1.1.1. Using catalogues

Bailey (2011a, pp. 14-18)
Bailey (2011b, pp. 13-16)
Gillett, Hammond & Martala (2009, ch. 4)
Hamp-Lyons & Courter (1984, chap. 2)
Harman & Freeman (1972, pp. 73-77)
Menasche (1997, pp. 11-13)
O'Brien & Jordan (1985)
Reid (1994, chap. 9)
Smith & Smith (1988, chap. 3)
Wallace (1980, pp. 114-130)

1.1.2. Using books and periodicals

Bailey (2011a, pp. 11-14)
Bailey (2011b, pp. 13-16)
Hamp-Lyons & Courter (1984, chap. 4)
Menasche (1997, chap. 5)
O'Brien & Jordan (1985, chap. 2 & 3.6)
Reid (1994, chap. 9)
Reid (2000, pp. 101-116, chap. 8)
Waters & Waters (1995, pp. 41-54)

1.1.3. Using bibliographies and indexes

Hamp-Lyons & Courter (1987, chap. 4)
Menasche (1997, pp. 14-18)
O'Brien & Jordan (1985)
Wallace (2004, pp. 61-71)

1.2. Using sources

1.2.1 Making notes and writing up notes

Adkins & McKean (1985)
Bailey (2006, pp. 21-28)
Bailey (2011a, pp. 43-49)
Bailey (2011b, pp. 37-43)
Berry (1994, chap. 1)
Campbell (1983, chaps. 4, 6 & 7)
Clanchy & Ballard (1992, chap. 4)
Collinson (1982, chap. 7)
Cottrell (1999, 115-121)
Dollahite & Haun (2006, pp. 3-6, 34-43)
Drew & Bingham (chap. 4)
Gillett, Hammond & Martala (2009, ch. 5)
Godfrey (2009, 18-22)
Godfrey (2010, pp. 85-104)
Hamp-Lyons & Courter (1984, pp. 118-126)
Harman & Freeman (1972., chap. 4)
Harris (2011, chap. 3)
Heaton & Dunmore (1992, chap. 5, pp. 106-108)
Hopkins (1989, chap. 8)
Johnson  (1981)
Lewis (1983, chap. 5)
McArthur (1984b, pp. 31-33, 47-49, 127-128)
Menasche (1997, chap. 10)
Open University (1979, chap. 4)
Romanoff (1991, chap. 5)
Smith & Smith (1988, chap. 5)
Trzeciak & Mackay (1994, chap. 2)
Turner (2002, pp. 54-62)
Wallace (1980, chap. 3, pp. 98-113)
Wallace (2004, ch. 2)
Waters & Waters (1995, chap. 5)
Yorkey (1982, chap. 7)

1.2.2. Paraphrasing

Bailey (2006, pp. 29-31)
Bailey (2011a, pp. 33-35, 50-55)
Bailey (2011b, pp. 27-29, 44-50)
Braine & May (1996, pp. 128-131).

Courtney & Du (2015, p. 43)
Dollahite & Haun (2006, pp. 6-14)
Gillett, Hammond & Martala (2009, pp. 190-193)
Godfrey (2009, pp. 31-39)
Godfrey (2011, p. 36-43)
Hamp-Lyons & Courter (1984, chap. 1)
Hamp-Lyons & Heasley (2006, pp. 145-146)
Harris (2011, chap. 5)
Jolly (1984, pp. 148-)
Leki (1998, chap. 10)
Jordan (1999, chap. 15)
McArthur (1984b, pp. 21-23, 68)
Northedge (1990, p. 150)
Oshima & Hogue (1991, pp. 133-136)
Reid (2000, pp. 190-193)
Seal (1997, p. 12)
Swan (1976, pp. 42)
Swan (1975, pp. 63)
Trzeciak & Mackay (1994, chap. 2)
White & McGovern (1994, chap. 6)

1.2.3. Summarising

Bailey (2006, pp. 32-38)
Bailey (2011a, pp. 33-35, 56-61)
Bailey (2011b, pp. 27-29, 51-57)
Braine & May (1996, pp. 123-128)

Courtney & Du (2015, p. 44)
Dollahite & Haun (2006, pp. 21-33)
Gillett, Hammond & Martala (2009, pp. 185-189)
Godfrey (2009, pp. 40-46)
Godfrey (2011, p. 36-43)
Hamp-Lyons & Courter (1984, chap. 1)
Hamp-Lyons & Heasley (2006, pp. 146-147)
Harris (2011, chap. 5)
Jordan (1999, chap. 15)
Leki (1998, chap. 10)
McArthur (1944b, pp. 21-23, 31-33)
McCormack & Slaght (2005, pp. 17-22)
Methold & Blatchford (1983)
Meyers (2005, chap. 14)
Oshima & Hogue (1991, pp. 137-139)
Reid (1994, chap. 10)
Reid (2000, chap. 5)
Seal (1997, p. 13)
Smith & Smith (1988, p. 164)
Sullivan (1979, chap. 4)
Swales & Feak (1994, chap. 5)
Swales & Feak (2000, chap. 4.3-4.5, 5.2-5.3)
Trzeciak & Mackay (1994, chap. 2 & 3)
Wallace (2004, pp. 83-87)
White & McGovern (1994, chap. 6)

1.2.4. Synthesising

Bailey (2006, pp. 36-38)
Bailey (2011b, pp. 67-70, 258-261)

Courtney & Du (2015, p. 116)
Gillett, Hammond & Martala (2009, p. 193)
Godfrey (2009, pp. xi-xiii, 47-53, 66-69, 74-80)
Hamp-Lyons & Courter (1984, pp. 17-21)
Harris (2011, chap. 7)
Lewin (2010, pp. 95-105)
McArthur (1994b, pp. 31-33)
White & McGovern (1994, chap. 6)

1.2.5. Quoting directly

American Psychological Association (1994, pp. 95-99)
American Psychological Association (1996)
Bailey (2006, pp. 99-102)
Bailey (2011a, pp. 62-71)
Bailey (2011b, pp. 58=66)
Braine & May (1996, pp. 131-135).
Coles (1995, pp. 85-88, 103-106)
Cottrell (1999, p. 124)

Courtney & Du (2015, p. 43-46)
Gibaldi (1995, pp. 72-83)
Gillett, Hammond & Martala (2009, pp. 180-185)
Godfrey (2009, 23-30)
Godfrey (2011, pp. 28-35)
Hamp-Lyons & Courter (1984, chaps. 1 & 3)
Harris (2011, chap. 4)
Jordan (1990, app. 9)
Jordan (1999, chap. 16)
McArthur (1984b, pp. 31-33, 43-45, 102-105, 133-137)
McKay & Rosenthal (1980, ch 5)
Northedge (1990, p. 189)
Oshima & Hogue (1991, pp. 128-137)
Reid (2000, pp. 190-193)
Smith & Smith (1988, chap. 7.2)
Swales & Feak (1994, chap. 8)
Swales & Feak (2000, chap. 4.3-4.5, 5-2-5.3)
Wallace (2004, pp. 83-87)
Weissberg & Buker (1990, chap. 3)
Williams, R. (1982, pp. 86-87)

1.2.6. Citation: Referring to sources

American Psychological Association (1994, pp. 168-174)
American Psychological Association (1996)
Bailey (2006, pp. 99-102)
Bailey (2011a, pp. 30-35, 72-76)
Bailey (2011b, pp. 25-29, 58-66)
Coles (1995, pp. 103)
Cooley & Lewkowicz (2003, ch. 2)
Cottrell (1999, p. 125)

Courtney & Du (2015, pp. 68-74)
Dollahite & Haun (2006, pp. 116-121)
Gibaldi (1995, pp. 183-205)
Gillett, Hammond & Martala (2009, pp. 180-185)
Hamp-Lyons & Courter(1984, pp. 148-156)
Hamp-Lyons & Heasley (2006, pp. 140-145)
Jordan (1990, app. 9)
Jordan (1999, chap. 16)
Leki (1998, chap. 11)
Lillis (1997, pp. 67-68)
McArthur (1984b, 105-109, 141-145)
McCormack & Slaght (2005, pp. 14-17, 35-37, 41-45)
Menasche (1997, chap. 9)
Oshima & Hogue (1991, pp. 140-144)
Raimes (1999, pp. 96-101, 136-140)
Reid (2000, pp. 87-88)
Smith & Smith (1988, chap. 7.1)
Swales & Feak (1994, chap. 8)
Swales & Feak (2000, chap. 4.3-4.5, 5.2-5.3)
Thurstun & Candlin (1998, chap. 3)
Trzeciak & Mackay (1994, chap. 3)
Wallace (1980, pp. 156-162)
Wallace (2004, pp. 85-90)
Weissberg & Buker (1990, chap.3)
Williams, R. (1982, pp. 86-87)

1.2.7. Writing a list of references

American Psychological Association (1994, pp. 174-234)
American Psychological Association (1996)
Bailey (2006, pp. 101-102)
Bailey (2011a, pp. 69-70)
Bailey (2011b, pp. 64-65)
Berry (1994, chap. 2)
Dollahite & Haun (2006, pp. 122-134)
Gibaldi (1995, pp. 101-182)
Gillett, Hammond & Martala (2009, pp. 194-197)
Hamp-Lyons & Courter (1984, app. A)
Jordan (1990, app. 9)
Jordan (1999, chap. 16)
Leki (1998, chap. 11)
McArthur (1984b, pp. 135-137)
McCormack & Slaght (2005, pp. 38-39)
Menasche (1997, chap.6)
Oshima & Hogue (1991, p. 144)
Raimes (1999, pp. 105-124, 142-153)
Smith & Smith (1988, chap. 7.3)
Trzeciak & Mackay (1994, chap. 4)
Turabian (1987)
Turner (2002, pp. 50-51)
Wallace (2004, p. 115))
Waters & Waters (1995, pp. 51-53)
Williams, R (1982, pp. 86-87)

2. Writing descriptions of places objects etc.

2.0. Introduction

Cottrell (1999, p. 174)
Gillett, Hammond & Martala (2009, p. 114)
Good & Jensen (1995, p. 105)
Oshima & Hogue (1997, unit 3)
Smith & Smith (1988, chap. 6.2)
Zimmerman (1989, chap. 11)

2.1. Describing objects

Campbell (1983, chap. 1)
Gillett, Hammond & Martala (2009, pp. 117-119)
Glendinning & Mantell (1984, chap. 4)
Hogue (1996, unit 3)
Johnson (1981, chaps. 8 & 9)
Jolly (1984, chap. 4)
Jordan (1990, chap. 3)
McKay & Rosenthal (1980, ch 2)
Sellen (1982, chap. 3)
Zemach & Rumisek (2005, pp. 25-28)

2.2. Describing location and direction

Campbell (1983, chap. 3)
Hamp-Lyons & Heasley (1987, chap. 1)
Hogue (1996, pp. 72-78)
McKay & Rosenthal (1980, ch 2)
Meyers (2005, chaps. 6 & 7)
Sellen (1982, chap. 2)

2.3. Writing definitions

Bailey (2006, pp. 79-81)
Bailey (2011a, pp. 126-129)
Bailey (2011b, pp. 122-125)
Campbell (1983, chap. 1)
Gillett, Hammond & Martala (2009, pp. 115-116)
Hamp-Lyons & Heasley (1987, chap. 3)
Hamp-Lyons & Heasley (2006, pp. chap. 4)
Johnson (1981, chap. 5)
Jordan (1990, chap. 2.2)
Leki (1998, pp. 278-281)
McCormack & Slaght (2005, pp. 62-65)
McKay & Rosenthal (1980, ch 2)
Meyers (2005, chap. 12)
Pallant (2004, pp. 43-47)
Reid (2000, pp. 49-51)
Swales & Feak (1994, chap. 2)
White & McGovern (1994, chap. 5)
Zimmerman (1989, chap. 5)

2.4. Classifying / categorising

Campbell (1983, chap. 1)
Gillett, Hammond & Martala (2009, pp. 127-128)
Hamp-Lyons & Heasley (1987, chap. 2)
Hamp-Lyons & Heasley (2006, chap 2)
Johnson (1981, chap. 4)
Jordan (1990, chap. 7)
Leki (1998, pp. 273-275)
McKay & Rosenthal (1980, ch 3)
Meyers (2005, chap. 10)
Reid (2000, pp. 54-57)
Sellen (1982, chap. 5)
Zimmerman (1898, chap. 1)

2.5. Giving examples

Bailey (2006, pp. 66-88)
Bailey (2011a, pp. 130-133)
Bailey (2011b, pp. 126-129)
Campbell (1983, chap. 1)
Gillett, Hammond & Martala (2009, pp. 156-157)
Hogue (1996, unit 5)
Johnson (1981, chap. 7)
Jordan (1990, chap. 6)
McKay & Rosenthal (1980, ch 2)
Zimmerman (1989, chap. 6, 7)

2.6. Comparing and contrasting: similarities and differences

Arnold & Harmer (1978, chap. 9)
Bailey (2006, pp. 75-78)
Bailey (2011a, pp. 119-125)
Bailey (2011b, pp. 115-121)
Campbell (1983, chap. 6)
Cottrell (1999, pp. 177-179)
Gillett, Hammond & Martala (2009, pp. 150=153)
Glendinning and Mantell (1983, chap. 4)
Huckin & Olsen (1991, pp. 416-7)
Hamp-Lyons & Heasley (1987, chap.5)
Hamp-Lyons & Heasley (2006, pp. 35-43)
Oshima & Hogue (1997, unit 9)
Johnson (1981, chap. 6)
Jordan (1990, chap. 8)
Leki (1998, pp. 281-283)
McKay & Rosenthal (1980, ch 6)
Meyers (2005, chap. 11)
Reid (1994, chap.6)
Reid (2000, pp. 51-54)
Seal (1997, p. 29)
Trzeciak & Mackay (1994, chap. 3)
Wallace (2004, pp. 95-98)
White & McGovern (1994, chap. 3)
Zemach & Rumisek (2005, pp. 40-50)
Zimmerman (1989, chap. 2)

2.7. Reporting and narrating

Cookson (1984, pp. 27-33)
Gillett, Hammond & Martala (2009, pp. 129-132)
Good & Jensen (1995, p. 100)
Heaton & Dunmore (1992, pp. 108-110)
Hamp-Lyons & Heasley (2006, chap. 6)
Hopkins (1989, chap. 13)
Huckin & Olsen (1991, pp. 414-5)
Inglis & Lewis (1979)
Jolly (1984, chap. 5)
Jordan (1990, chaps. 14 & 15)
Meyers (2005, chaps. 5 & 7)
Oshima & Hogue (1997, unit 2)
Pincas, Hadfield & Hadfield (1982, chaps. 9, 15, 17)
Zimmerman (1989, chap. 8, 10)

3. Describing processes and developments

3.1. Expressing purpose means and method

Campbell (1983. chap. 5)
Cooper (1979, pp. 40-51)
Johnson (1981, chap. 11)
McKay & Rosenthal (1980, ch 1)
Pincas, Hadfield & Hadfield (1982, chap. 14)
Sellen (1982, chap. 8)

3.2. Expressing degrees of certainty

Arnold & Harmer (1978, chap. 10)
Bailey (2011a, pp. 188-191)
Bailey (2011b, pp. 181-184)
Gillett, Hammond & Martala (2009, p. 144)
Johnson (1981, chap. 12)
Jordan (1990, chap. 10)
Zimmerman (1989, chap. 4, 12)

3.3. Expressing reasons and explanations / cause and effect

Arnold & Harmer (1978, chap. 8)
Bailey (2006, pp. 70-72)
Bailey (2011a, pp.109-114)
Bailey (2011b, pp. 104-109)
Cooper (1979, pp. 40-51)
Gillett, Hammond & Martala (2009, pp. 138-141)
Glendinning & Mantell (1983, chap. 6)
Godfrey (2009, pp. 70-73)
Good & Jensen (1995, p. 88)
Hamp-Lyons & Heasley (1987, chap. 9)
Huckin & Olsen (1991, pp. 415)
Johnson (1981, chap. 13)
Jolly (1984, chap. 1)
Jordan (1990, chap. 9)
Leki (1998, pp. 275-278)
Meyers (2005, chap. 9)
Pallant (2004, pp. 52-59, 60-63)
Reid (2000, pp. 57-61)
Sellen (1982, chap. 7)
Wallace (2004, pp. 99-101)
White & McGovern (1994, chap. 2)
Zemach & Rumisek (2005, pp. 50-55
Zimmerman (1989, chap. 3)

3.4. Describing developments and changes

Campbell (1983, chap. 5)
Cooley & Lewkowicz (2003, pp. 73-74)
Gillett, Hammond & Martala (2009, pp. 120-123)
Glendinning and Mantell (1983, chap. 5)
Good & Jensen (1995, p. 77)
Hopkins (1989, chap. 12)
Pincas, Hadfield & Hadfield (1982, chap. 14)
Meyers (2005, chap. 8)
Seal (1997, p 120)
Sellen (1982, chap. 9)
Swales & Feak (1994, chap. 3)
Wallace (2004, pp. 92-94)
Zemach & Rumisek (2005, pp. 29-32)

3.5. Describing a sequence of events / time relations

Adkins & McKean (1985, pp. 40 & 63)
Campbell (1983, chap. 4)
Cooper (1979, pp. 1-15)
Gillett, Hammond & Martala (2009, pp. 120-123)
Hamp-Lyons & Heasley (2006, chap. 7)
Hogue (1995, pp 102-117)
Johnson (1981, chap. 14)
Jordan (1990, chap. 2)
McKay & Rosenthal (1980, ch 4)
Meyers (2005, chap. 8)
Reid (2000, pp. 47-49)
Sellen (1982, chap. 6)
Swales & Feak (1994, chap. 3)

3.6. Writing instructions

Campbell (1983, chap. 2)
Cooper (1979, pp. 1 -15)
Hogue (1996, unit 2)
Hopkins (1989, chap. 9)
Jolly (1984, chap. 13)
Sellen (1982, chap. 1)
Zimmerman (1989, chap. 8)

4. Writing critically: Developing an argument

4.0. Introduction

Cookson (1984, chap. 4)
Cottrell (1999, pp. 175-178)

Courtney & Du (2015, p. 89-124)
Gillett, Hammond & Martala (2009, p. 136)
Hamp-Lyons & Heasley (2006, chap. 8)
Howe (1983, pp. 15-17)
Huckin & Olsen (1991, chap. 4)
Jolly (1984, chap. 7)
Johnson (1981, part 3)
Jordan (1990, chap. 12)
Northedge (1990, chap. 6.5)
Pirie (1985, chaps. 3 & 4)
Reid (2000, chap. 6)
Smith & Smith (1988, chap. 6.3)
White & McGovern (1994, chap. 2)

4.1. Presenting arguments ideas and opinions

Arnold & Harmer (1978, chap. 1)
Bailey (2006, pp. 67-69, 199-200)
Bailey (2011a, pp. 101-108, 134-138)
Bailey (2011b, pp. 97-103, 130-135)
Cooley & Lewkowicz (2003, pp. 77-92)
Gillett, Hammond & Martala (2009, pp. 142-144)
Glendinning & Mantell (1983, chap. 7)
Godfrey (2011, pp. 55-74)
Hogue (1995, unit 6)
Kwan-Terry (1988, chap. 4)
Meyers (2005, chap. 13)
Moor (1984, chaps. 4 & 5)
Raimes (1999, pp. 174-179)
Reid (1994, chap. 5)
Wallace (2004, pp. 101-102)
White & McGovern (1994, chap. 2)
Zemach & Rumisek (2005, pp. 33-39)

4.2. Expressing certainty and doubt

Arnold & Harmer (1978, chap. 10)
Cooley & Lewkowicz (2003, pp. p. 93)
Gillett, Hammond & Martala (2009, pp. 142-144)
Hamp-Lyons & Heasley (2006, pp. chap. 5)
Johnson (1981, chaps. 16 & 17)
McKay & Rosenthal (1980, ch 9)
Thurstun & Candlin (1998, chap. 5)
Zimmerman (1989, chap. 4)

4.3. Supporting an argument: illustrating and exemplifying ideas

Bailey (2011a, pp. 145-149)
Bailey (2011b, pp. 142-146)
Cooper (1979, pp. 52-53)
Dollahite & Haun (2006, pp. 77-97)
Gillett, Hammond & Martala (2009, pp. 1542-154)
Glendinning and Mantell (1983, chap. 7)
Godfrey (2011, pp. 55-74)
Hogue (1995, pp 138-147)
Johnson (1981, chap. 17)
Kwan-Terry (1988, chap. 5.1)
McKay & Rosenthal (1980, ch 8)
Oshima & Hogue (1997, unit 8)
Pallant (2004, pp. 47-51)
Pincas, Hadfield & Hadfield (1982, chaps. 3 & 7)

4.4. Refuting arguments, ideas & opinions

Bailey (2011a, p. 106)
Bailey (2011b, pp. 101)
Gillett, Hammond & Martala (2009, pp. 211-212)
Glendinning and Mantell (1983, chap. 7)
Kwan-Terry (1988, chaps. 5.2 & 5.5)
McKay & Rosenthal (1980, ch 8)

4.5. Offering evaluative comments on opinions and arguments

Gillett, Hammond & Martala (2009, pp. 211-212)
Hamp-Lyons & Heasley (2006, pp. 43-43)
Kwan-Terry (1988, chaps. 5.3 & 5.4)
Pincas, Hadfield & Hadfield (1982, chap. 16)
Swales & Feak (1994, chap. 6)

4.6. Drawing conclusions

Gillett, Hammond & Martala (2009, pp. 158-159)
Glendinning and Mantel (1983l, chap. 8)
Johnson (1981, chap. 19)
Jordan (1990, chap. 13)
Pincas, Hadfield & Hadfield (1982, chap. 12)

5. Writing academic genres

5.0. Introduction

Bailey (2011a, pp. 4-6, 249-281)
Bailey (2011b, pp. 4-6, 243-269)
Barrass (1978)
Bell (1999, ch. 13)
Coles (1995, 55-63)
Cooley & Lewkowicz (2003, pp. 7-36)
Cooper (1964)
Dudley-Evans (1985, chap. 1)
Gillett, Hammond & Martala (2009, p. 217)
Huckin & Olsen (1991, chap. 12)
Inglis & Lewis (1979)
Jordan (1990, chaps. 14 & 15)
Open University (2008)
Rames (1999, chap. 24)
Weissberg & Buker (1990, chap. 1)

5.1. The format and layout of the project/report/dissertation

Bailey (2011a, pp. 257-266)
Bailey (2011b, pp. 252-257)
Barrass (1978, chap. 12)
Bell (1999, pp. 200-206)
Cooley & Lewkowicz (2003, pp. 127-130 )
Day (1989, chap. 3)
Cooper (1964, chap. 3)
Dudley-Evans (1985, chap. 1)
Gillett, Hammond & Martala (2009, pp. 218-219)
Glendinning & Howard (2007, pp. 122-123)
Godfrey (2011, pp. 75-95)
Gregory (2005, pp. 96-110)
Hamp-Lyons & Heasley (2006, pp. 30-31, 134-140)
Huckin & Olsen (1991, chap. 12, 13, 14, 15)
McCormack & Slaght (2005, pp. 23-39)
McKay & Rosenthal (1980, ch 10)
Thomas (2011)
Weissberg & Buker (1990, chap. 1)

5.2. Describing aims and objectives

Bitchener (1010, chap. 3)
Cooley & Lewkowicz (2003, pp. 31-33)
Dudley-Evans (1985, chap. 2)
Swales & Feak (1994, chap. 7)
Weissberg & Buker (1990, chaps. 2, 3 & 4)

5.3. Describing procedures and methods

Bitchener (2010, chap. 5)
Day (1989, chap. 8)
Dudley-Evans (1985, chap. 3)
Hamp-Lyons & Heasley (2006, pp. 98-103)
Lewin (2010, chap. 9)
Paltridge & Starfield ( 2007, chap. 8)
Swales (1971, chaps. 8 & 9)
Swales & Feak (1994, chap. 7)
Weissberg & Buker (1990, chap. 5 & 6)

5.4. Presenting and discussing results

Bitchener (2010, chap. 6 & 7)
Cooley & Lewkowicz (2003, pp. 69-94)
Day (1989, chap. 9)
Dudley-Evans (1985, chaps 4, 5 & 6)
Hamp-Lyons & Heasley (2006, pp. 111-118)
Lewin (2010, chap. 10, 11)
Naoum (1998, chap. 9)
Paltridge & Starfield ( 2007, chap. 4)
Swales & Feak (1994, chap. 9 & 10)
Weissberg & Buker (1990, chaps. 7 & 8)

5.5. Describing graphs and charts

Dudley-Evans (1985, chaps. 7 & 8)
Gillett, Hammond & Martala (2009, pp. 124-126)
Glendinning & Howard (2007, pp. 118-121)
Hamp-Lyons & Courter (1984, pp. 156-166)
Hamp-Lyons & Heasley (2006, pp. 82-88)
Jordan (1990, chap. 11)
MacKenzie (2006, pp. 82-83)
McCormack & Slaght (2005, pp. 66-75)
Northedge (1990, chap. 4)
Swales (1971, chap. 11)
Trzeciak & Mackay (1994, chap. 4)
White & McGovern (1994, chap. 4 & 7)
Williams, R (1982.)

5.6. Drawing conclusions

Bitchener (2010, chap. 8)
Cooley & Lewkowicz (2003, pp. 95-125)
Dudley-Evans (1985, chaps. 8 & 9)
Gillett, Hammond & Martala (2009, p. 160)
Paltridge & Starfield ( 2007, chap. 10)
Swales & Feak (1994, chap. 8)
Weissberg & Buker (1990, chap. 8)

5.7. Writing the literature review

Bailey (2011a, pp. 264-265)
Bailey (2011b, pp. 13-16)
Bell (1999, ch. 6)
Bitchener (2010, chap. 4)
Cooley & Lewkowicz (2003, pp. 20-30)

Courtney & Du (2015, pp. 218-223)
Dudley-Evans (1985, chap. 10)
Feak & Swales (2009)
Gillett, Hammond & Martala (2009, pp. 225-226)
Hamp-Lyons & Heasley (2006, pp. 69-74)
Hart (1998)
Lewin (2010, chap. 8)
Naoum (1998. chap. 3)
Pechenik & Lamb (1994, chap. 3)
Penrose & Katz (1989, chap. 4)
Ridley (2008)
Swales & Feak (1994, pp. 179-184)
Swales & Feak (2000, chap. 4)
Thomas (2011, npp17-21)
Weissberg & Buker (1990, chap. 3)

5.8. Writing the introduction and abstract

Bitchener (2010, chap. 2 & 3)
Cooley & Lewkowicz (2003, pp. 7-36, 117-125)
Courtney & Du (2015, pp. 217-218)
Day (1989, chap. 6 & 7)
Dudley-Evans (1985, chap. 10)
Feak & Swales (2011)
Gillett, Hammond & Martala (2009, pp. 232-233)
Glendinning & Howard (2007, pp. 124-125)
Hamp-Lyons & Heasley (2006, pp. 45-48)
Lewin (2010, chap. 7, 13)
McCormack & Slaght (2005, pp. 76-79)
Paltridge & Starfield ( 2007, chap. 6 & 11)
Pechenik & Lamb (1994, chap. 3)
Swales & Feak (1994, chap. 8)
Swales & Feak (2009)
Thomas (2011, pp. 96-97)
Weissberg & Buker (1990, chap. 9)

5.9 Writing theses and dissertations

Bitchener (2010)
Brown (2006)
Carter, Kelly & Brailsford (2012)
Cooley & Lewkowicz (2003)
Courtney & Du (2015, p. 43)
Creswell (2003); Day (1989)
Deane & Borg (2011, chap. 7)
Dunleavy (2003)
Evans (1995)
Feak & Swales (2009)
Feak & Swales (2011)
Horn (2012)
Kamler & Thomson (2006)
Lewin (2010)
Madsen (1992)
Menasche (1997)
Murphy & Beglar (2009)
Murray (2002)
Naoum (1998)
Paltridge & Starfield (2007)
Pechenik & Lamb (1994,chap. 3)
Perry (2013)
Phillips & Pugh (1987)
Ridley (2008)
Swales & Feak (2009)
Williams, Bethell, Lawton, Parfitt-Brown, Richardson & Rowe (2010)
Williams, Bethell, Lawton, Parfitt-Brown, Richardson & Rowe (2011).

5.10 Other kinds of writing

5.10.1. Posters

Day (1989, chap. 25)
Gillett, Hammond & Martala (2009, pp. 248-252)
Robinson, Stoller, Constanza-Robinson, & Jones (2008, chaps. 8, 9, 10)
Swales & Feak (2000, chap. 3)

5.10.2. Proposals

Huckin & Olsen (1991, chap. 16)
Gillett, Hammond & Martala (2009, pp. 223-224)
Madsen (1992, chap. 4)
Marder (1976, p. 194)
Naoum (1998, pp. 14-15, appendix 1)
Paltridge & Starfield ( 2007, chap. 4)
Penrose & Katz (1998, chap. 6)
Robinson, Stoller, Constanza-Robinson, & Jones (2008, chaps 11-15.)

5.10.3. Conference abstracts

Penrose & Katz (1998, pp. 92-98)
Swales & Feak (2000, chap.2)

5.10.4. CVs

Bailey (2011a, pp. 254-256)
Bailey (2011b, pp. 249-252)
Pechenik & Lamb (1994, chap. 12)
Swales & Feak (2000, chap. 8.1)
Swales & Feak (2011, pp. 85-90)

5.10.5. Job applications

Huckin & Olsen (1991, chap. 10)
Swales & Feak (2000, chap. 8.3)
Swales & Feak (2011, pp. 9-100)

5.10.6. Letters of recommendation

Swales & Feak (2000, chap. 8.4)

5.10.7. Critiques & Book Reviews

Arnaudet & Barrett (1984, chap. 6)
Day (1989, chap. 22)
Gillett, Hammond & Martala (2009, pp. 230-232)
Pechenik & Lamb (1994, chap. 8)
Penrose & Katz (1998, pp. 74-75)
Swales & Feak (2004, chap. 6)

5.10.8. Case studies

Bailey (2011a, pp. 259-260)
Gillett, Hammond & Martala (2009, pp. 223-225)

5.10.9. Writing achnowledgments

Pechenik & Lamb (1994, p. 110)

5.10.10. Writing for a non-specialist audience

Penrose & Katz (1998, chap. 7) )

5.10.11. Writing reflectively

Gillett, Hammond & Martala (2009, pp. 163-178, 236-238)

6. Writing skills

6.0. Introduction

Barnes (1992, chap. 6)
Cottrell (1999, pp. 131-139)
Gibbs (1981, pp. 27-32)
Good & Jensen (1995, chaps. 4 & 5)
Harman & Freeman (1972, chap. 5)
Kwan-Terry (1988, chap. 2)
Lewis (1983, chap. 6)
Moor, C (1982., chap. 7)
Northedge (1990, chaps. 5 & 6)
Pallant (2004, pp. 11-16)
Reid (2000, pp. 28-29)
Rouse (1978, pp. 15-)
Rowntree (1976, chap. 4)
Trzeciak & Mackay (1994, chap. 1)
Waters & Waters (1995, chap. 8)
Yorkey (1982, chap. 4)
Zobel (2004, pp. 137-156)

6.1. Organisation: presentation and layout

Bailey (2006, pp. 3-6)
Bailey (2011a, pp. 36-42)
Bailey (2011b, pp. 30-36)
Berry (1994, chap. 4)
Coles (1995. pp. 77-80)
Collinson (1982, chap. 8)
Cottrell (1999, 144-160)
Dollahite & Haun (2006, pp. 44-71)
Gillett, Hammond & Martala (2009, ch. 13)
Godfrey (2011, pp. 55-74)
Hamp-Lyons & Courter (1984. pp. 126-140)
Hamp-Lyons & Heasley (1987, chaps. 10, 11 & 12)
Hamp-Lyons & Heasley (2006, chap. 9)
Hopkins (1989, chaps. 15 & 16)
Huckin & Olsen (1991, chap. 12-18)
Jordan (1990, chap. 1)
Menasche (1997, chap. 8, 12)
Meyers (2005, pp. 38-50)
Northedge (1990, chap. 5)
Pallant (2004, pp. 23-26)
Salimbene (1982, chap. 4)
Swales & Feak (1994, chap. 2, 3, 4, 7, 8)
Swales & Feak (2000)
Turley (2000, chap. 2)
Wallace (1980, chap. 6)
Wallace (2004, pp. 91-93)
Waters & Waters (1995, chap. 9)
Zemach & Rumisek (2005, pp. 56-70)

6.2. Spelling and punctuation

6.2.1. Punctuation

Bailey (2011a, pp. 212-216)
Bailey (2011b, pp. 205-209)
Carey (1971)
Collinson (1982, chap. 8)
Gillett, Hammond & Martala (2009, p. 276)
Hogue (1995, pp. 11-15, 55-58, 158-162)
Huckin & Olsen (1991, appendix A)
Jordan (1990, pp. 97-98, 107-109)
McArthur (1984a. 1984b)
Meyers (2005, chap. 29 & 30)
Oshima & Hogue (1991, appendix A)
Oshima & Hogue (1997, appendix A)
Payne (1983)
Raimes (1999, part 8)
Trask (1997)
Turner (2002, pp. 137-138)

6.2.2. Spelling

Barrass (1982, Appendix 1 & 2)
Collinson (1982, chap. 2)
Gillett, Hammond & Martala (2009, p. 277)
Hogue (1995, pp. 11-15, 55-58, 158-162)
Huckin & Olsen (1991, chap. 28, app. A)
Jordan (1990, pp. 95-96, 104-106)
McArthur (1984a, 1984b)
Meyers (2005, chap. 30)
Rames (1999, chap 58)
Tucker (1984)
Turner (2002, pp. 130-138).

6.3. Including graphs charts and tables

Bailey (2006, pp. 114-118)
Bailey (2011a, pp. 139-144, 158-165)
Bailey (2011b, pp. 136-141, 154-161)
Coles (1995. pp. 89-99)
Cooley & Lewkowicz (2003, p. 775)
Day (1989, chap. 13 & 14)
Gillett, Hammond & Martala (2009, p. 124)
Glendinning & Howard (2007, pp. 118-121)
Hamp-Lyons & Courter (1987, pp. 156-166)
Hamp-Lyons & Heasley (2006, pp. 82-88)
Huckin & Olsen (1991, chaps. 8, 9 & 10)
Jordan (1990, chap. 11)
McCormack & Slaght (2005, pp. 66-75)
Northedge (1990, chap. 4)
Swales & Feak (1994, chap. 4)
Trzeciak & Mackay (1994, chap. 4)
Waters & Waters (1995, pp. 125-133)
White & McGovern (1994, chaps. 4 & 7)
Williams, R. (1982)
Zobel (2004, pp. 83-126)

6.4. Making the essay flow: Links, signposts & paragraphs

Bailey (2006, pp. 43-47, 73-74)
Bailey (2011a, pp. 9, 77-82, 115-118, 226-230)
Bailey (2011b, pp. 8-9, 71-77, 110-114, 220-224)
Caplan (2012, ch. 8)
Collinson (1982, p. 154)
Cooley & Lewkowicz (2003, pp. 127-150, 151-164)
Cottrell (1999, pp. 157-159)
Dollahite & Haun (2006, pp. 73-76, 108-115)
Gillett, Hammond & Martala (2009, pp. 99-107)
Glendinning & Mantell (1983, chaps.1, 2 & 3)
Good & Jensen (1995, chap. 7)
Hamp-Lyons & Heasley (2006, pp. 127-131)
Heaton & Dunmore (1992, p 104-5, 110-111)
Hogue (1995, pp. 3-4, 33-43, 72-74, 102-118, 204)
Huckin & Olsen (1991, chaps. 22, 23, 24 & 25)
Johnson (1981, chap. 2)
Jolly (1984, chap. 7.1)
Kwan-Terry (1988, chap. 1)
Leki (1998, chap. 5)
Lewin (2010, chap. 4, 6)
Lewis (1983, chap. 7)
Lewis & Inglis (1982, chap. 6)
Lillis (1997, p. 209)
McArthur (1984a, pp. 25-28)
McKay & Rosenthal (1980, ch 5)
Meyers (2005, pp. 13-37, 51-126, 308-341)
Moor, C.,(1981 chap. 3)
Northedge (1990, chap. 6.4)
Oshima & Hogue (1991, chaps. 1-6)
Oshima & Hogue (1997, units 4 & 5)
Pallant (2004, pp. 36-39)
Reid (1994, chap. 33-8)
Reid (2000, pp. 7-12, 17-31, 80, 88-89, 116-129)
Romanoff (1991, pp. 46-48)
Rooks (1988)
Seal (1997, p. 34)
Sherman (1994, chap. 5)
Swales & Feak (1994, chap. 1)
Turley (2000, chap. 3)
Waters & Waters (1995, pp. 108-111)
Williams, R.,(1982 chap. 1)
Zemach & Rumisek (2005, pp. 11-24, 78-87)

6.5. Writing introductions and conclusions

6.5.1. Writing introductions

Bailey (2006, pp. 52-55)
Bailey (2011a, pp. 83-88)
Bailey (2011b, pp. 78-83)
Barnes (1992, pp. 72-73)
Coles (1995, pp. 42-47)
Cooley & Lewkowicz (2003, pp. 77-36)
Collinson (1982, p. 154)
Cookson (1984, pp. 8-12)
Creme & Lea (1997, chap. 8)
Dollahite & Haun (2006, pp. 98-107)
Heaton & Dunmore (1992, pp. 111-112)
Hogue (1995, pp. 6-7)
Johnson (1981, chap. 5)
Jordan (1999, chap. 13)
Lewis(1983, chap. 9)
McCormack & Slaght (2005, pp. 55-59)
Menasche (1997, chap. 7, 11)
Oshima & Hogue (1991, chap. 7)
Oshima & Hogue (1997, unit 6)
Pallant (2004, pp. 19-22)
Reid (2000, pp. 84-87)
Rouse (1978, p. 12)
Thurston & Candlin (1998, chaps. 1 & 4)
Trzeciak & Mackay (1994, chap. 3)
Turley (2000, chap. 1)
Zemach & Rumisek (2005, pp. 71-74)

6.5.2. Writing conclusions

Bailey (2006, pp. 56-59)
Bailey (2011a, pp. 89-90)
Bailey (2011b, pp. 83-85)
Collinson (1982, p. 154)
Cookson (1984. pp. 8-12)
Cooley & Lewkowicz (2003, pp. 95-125)
Creme & Lea (1997, chap. 8)
Dollahite & Haun (2006, pp. 98-107)
Gillett, Hammond & Martala (2009, p. 104)
Hogue (1995, pp. 6-7)
Johnson (1981, chap. 19)
Jordan (1999, chap. 13)
Lewis (1983 pp. 86-87)
Lewis & Inglis (1982, chap. 5)
McCormack & Slaght (2005, pp. 59-62)
McKay & Rosenthal (1980, ch 7)
Oshima & Hogue (1991, chap. 7)
Oshima & Hogue (1997, unit 6)
Pallant (2004, pp. 40-42)
Reid (2000, pp. 89-92)
Rouse (1978, p. 14)
Thurston & Candlin (1998, chap. 6)
Trzeciak & Mackay (1994, chap. 3)
Turley (2000, chap. 3)
Zemach & Rumisek (2005, pp. 74-77)

6.6. Academic writing style

Bailey (2006, pp. 17-20, 105-108)
Bailey (2011a, pp. 6-8, 150-157)
Bailey (2011b, pp. 6-8, 147-153)
Barnes (1992, p.p 83-86)
Clanchy & Ballard (1992, pp. 75-81, 129-131)
Coles (1995, pp. 67-74)
Cooley & Lewkowicz (2003, pp. 166-167)
Collinson (1982, chap. 5)
Cottrell (1999, pp. 166-173)
Creme & Lea (1997, chap 7)
Gillett, Hammond & Martala (2009, pp. 88-96)
Godfrey (2009, pp. 81-83)
Godfrey (2011, p. 67)
Hamp-Lyons & Courter (1984, pp. 166-170)
Hamp-Lyons & Heasley (1987, pp. 90-91)
Hamp-Lyons & Heasley (2006, pp. 16-23)
Heaton & Dunmore (1992, pp. 105-6)
Jordan (1990, pp. 101-103)
Jordan (1999, chap. 14)
Huckin & Olsen (1991, chap. 37, app. A)
Lewis & Inglis (1982, chap. 7)
McArthur (1984b, pp. 137-140)
Moor, C. (1981, chap. 6)
Pirie (1985, chap. 5)
Raimes (1999, part 6)
Reid (1994, pp. 4-6)
Reid (2000, pp. 5-6)
Seal (1997, p. 35)
Sherman (1994, chap. 7)
Sullivan (1983, chaps. 1 & 2)
Swales & Feak (1994, chap. 1)
Turley (2000, chap. 6)
Turner (2002, pp. 112-129)
White & McGovern (1994)
Zobel (2004, pp. 7-58)

6.7. Accuracy: Revising & proof-reading

Bailey (2006, pp. 60-64, 119-184)
Bailey (2011a, pp. 90-97, 175-245)
Bailey (2011b, pp. 86-93, 173-176)
Clanchy & Ballard (1992, chaps. 6 & 7)
Cottrell (1999, 162)
Day (1989, chap. 18)
Gillett, Hammond & Martala (2009, ch. 15)
Godfrey (2009, pp. 87-105)
Godfrey (2011, pp. 97-113)
Heaton & Dunmore (1992, chap. 8-9)
Huckin & Olsen (1991, chap. 7, 28, app. B)
Jordan (1990, pp. 93-103)
Jordan (1999, chap. 18)
Leki (1998, chaps. 8 & 9, app. B)
Lewis & Inglis (1982, chap. 7)
Lillis (1997, pp. 69-71)
McArthur (1984a, pp. 28, 41, 54, 66)
Menasche (1997, chap. 13, 14, 15)
Meyers (2005, chap. 3)
Northedge (1990, pp. 166-173)
Wallace (1980, pp. 164-170)
Wallace (2004, pp. 112-116)
Waters & Waters (1995, pp. 111-116)
White & McGovern (1994)
Zemach & Rumisek (2005, pp. 9-10, 21-24)
Zobel (2004, pp. 129-136)

6.8. The writing process

Bailey (2006, p. 1)
Bailey (2011a, pp. 3-4, 166-172)
Bailey (2011b, pp. 3-4, 162-166)
Gillett, Hammond & Martala (2009, chs. 2 & 3)
Godfrey (2011, pp. 97-113)
Meyers (2005, chap. 1)
Hamp-Lyons & Heasley (2006, chap 1)
Oshima & Hogue (1991, chap. 1)
Pallant (2004, pp. 7-10, 17-18)
McCormack & Slaght (2005, pp. 5-11)
Trzeciak & Mackay (1994)
White & McGovern (1994, chap. 1)
Zemach & Rumisek (2005, pp. 2-4)

7. Answering assignment and exam questions

7.0. Introduction

Blass (2009)
Clanchy & Ballard (1992, chap. 10)
Harman & Freeman (1972, chap. 6)
Heaton & Dunmore (1992, chap. 14)
Gillett, Hammond & Martala (2009, ch. 2)
Howe (1983)
Leki (1998, chap. 15)
Moor, C. (1981)
Northedge (1990, chap.7)
Pallant (2004, pp. 27-31)
Raimes (1999, part 1)
Wallace (2004, pp. 104-112)
Waters & Waters, 1995, chap. 11)
Yorkey (1982, chap. 9)
Zemach & Rumisek (2005, pp. 88-94)

7.1. Understanding the question

Bailey (2006, pp. 9-12)
Bailey (2011a, pp. 37-38)
Bailey (2011b, pp. 31-36)
Coles (1995, pp. 16-21)
Cottrell (1999, pp. 142-143)
Creme & Lea (1997, chap. 4)
Gillett, Hammond & Martala (2009, pp. 14-20)
Godfrey (2010, pp. 13-17)
Howe (1983, pp. 21-24)
Jordan (1980, app. 10)
Jordan (1999, chap. 19)
Leki (1998, pp. 267-270)
Lewis (1983 pp. 21-30)
Lillis (1997, pp. 56-58, 197-198).
Moor, C. (1981, chap. 2)
Pallant (2004, pp. 23-25, 30-31)
Pirie (1985, chap. 1)
Reid (1994, pp. 257-258)
Smith & Smith, (1988, chap. 8.3)
Turner (2002, pp. 64-67)
Wallace (1980, pp. 132 & 154)
Williams, R. (1982)
Zemach & Rumisek (2005, pp. 88-90)

7.2. Planning the answer

Bailey (2006, pp. 9-12, 39-42, 48-51)
Bailey (2011a, pp. 38-42)
Bailey (2011b, pp. 31-36)
Coles (1995, pp. 31-41)
Cottrell (1999, pp. 145-147)
Clanchy & Ballard (1992, chap. 5)
Creme & Lea (1997, chap. 4)
Gillett, Hammond & Martala (2009, pp. 14-20)
Leki (1998, unit 2, pp. 271-272)
Lillis (1997, pp. 59-66, 199-209).
Pirie (1985, chap. 3)
Howe (1983, pp. 31-33)
Oshima & Hogue (1991, chap. 8)
Oshima & Hogue (1997, unit 6)
Reid (1994, p. 260)
Reid (2000, chaps. 8 2 & 3, pp. 176-177, 184-189, 210-212, 233-237, 251-253)
Romanoff (1991, unit 3)
Turner (2002, pp. 68-79)
Williams, R. (1982)
Zemach & Rumisek (2005, pp. 90-94)

7.3. The answer

Cottrell (1999, pp. 224-225)
Gillett, Hammond & Martala (2009, p. 27)
Howe (1983, pp. 34-36)
Turley (2000, chap. 10)
Williams, R.(1982)

7.4. Evaluating the answer

Howe (1983, chap. 5)

^