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Example: The New Penguin Dictionary of Music

Penguin Dictionary of Music

Mulè, Giuseppe (1885-1951), Italian cellist, and composer of opera, music to Greek plays, symphonic poems, etc.

Mulliner Book, a MS. collection of English pieces (mainly for keyboard instrument, but a few for cittern and gittern) made by Thomas Mulliner and apparently dating approximately from 1550 to 1575; published in. modern notation 1951 and reckoned one of the most valuable sources of its period.

multimedia, term applied to mixtures of musical, visual, poetic and other events as practised by such composers as Berio and Lejaren Hiller, mainly from the early 1960s - often incorporating electronic means and excluding traditional 'mixtures' such as opera and ballet. multiserialism, see SERIES.

Mumma, Gordon (b. 1935), American composer who uses the term 'cybersonics' to indicate the use of computer-type electronics in his work - e.g. 'Swarm' for violin, concertina, bowed cross-cut saw, cybersonic modification. Has also written 'Gestures II' for 2 pianos, etc.

Mundy, John (c. 1550-1630), English composer of church music, madrigals (one in 'THE TRIUMPHS OF ORIANA'), pieces for viols, " etc. Organist of St George's Chapel, Windsor. Son of the following.

Mundy, William (c. 1529-c. 1591), English composer of anthem 'O Lord, the maker of all thing' (sometimes wrongly attributed to Henry VIII) and of other anthems, Latin motets, etc. Singer in the Chapel Royal but perhaps a secret Roman Catholic. Father of the preceding.

Munrow, David [John] (1942-76), English player of the recorder, crum-horn and other medieval (and later) instruments; founder-director of the Early Music Consort of London, 1967. Composed and arranged music for historical films, including 'Henry VIII and his Six Wives'.

Muradely, Vano (1908-70), Russian composer, pupil of Shcherbachev and Myaskovsky. Works include 'Symphony in Memory of Kirov', choral works, opera 'The Great Friendship' (1947) - this work touching off the denunciation by Soviet officialdom in 1948 of Muradely and other composers (including Prokofiev and Shostakovich) for FORMALISM and other alleged faults.

Murder in the Cathedral, opera by Pizzetti, produced in Milan, 1958; libretto (Assassinio nella Cattedrale) a Shortened Italian version of T. S. Eliot's play about Thomas a Becket.

Murrill, Herbert [Henry John] (1909-52), English composer of opera 'Man in Cage t, 2 cello concertos (no. 2 on a Catalan folk-song and dedicated to Casals), etc. Director of music, B B C, from 1950 until his death.

Mus., abbr. for Music - especially in university degrees, etc.; B.Mus., DMus. - bachelor, doctor of music.

Musard, Philippe (1793-1859), French violinist, conductor, composer of quadrilles, etc.; gave early successful promenade concerts in Paris and (1840 and afterwards) in London.

musette, (1) French type of bagpipe fashionable in Louis XIV's time through the cultivation of 'pastoral' ideal; used in the opera orchestra by Lully; (2) type of gavotte with a drone bass suggesting this instrument.

Musgrave, Thea (b. 1928), Scottish composer, pupil of N. Boulanger in Paris; works include clarinet concerto, viola concerto, horn concerto; 'The Five Ages of Man' for chorus and orchestra with optional brass band; operas 'The Decision' and 'The Voice of Ariadne'.

music, (1) 'an arrangement of, or the art of combining or putting together, sounds that please the ear' (Chambers Essential English Dictionary, 1968); (2, as in 'Master of the Queen's Music') an old English name for a band of musical performers. See also following entries.

Music for the Royal Fireworks, See FIREWORKS MUSIC.

Music Makers, The, work for contralto, chorus, and orchestra, by Elgar, first performed 1912. Text, A. O'Shaughnessy's poem. In this score Elgar quotes some of his own earlier works.

Music Master, The (It., II Maestro di musica), one-act comic opera satirizing the singing-master's profession; the music is commonly ascribed to Pergolesi, but in fact is not by him - apparently an altered version of 'Orazio', opera mainly by P. Auletta, with libretto by A. Palombo, produced in Naples, 1737 or earlier.

musica ficta (Lat., feigned music), in old music (up to 16th century) the practice of treating certain notes in performance as though they were marked with FLAT or SHARP signs. This practice was necessary to avoid certain harmonic anomalies that would otherwise result in polyphonic writing, and was carried out by performers according to the recognized conventions of the period. Editors of old texts for modern usage now write in the alterations necessary.

musica reservata (Lat., reserved music), term originating in the early 16th century of which the exact meaning is now unknown: applied to the expressive style associated with JOSQUIN and to the manner of performance appropriate to it, and thought to refer to (1) the maintenance of rules governing proper musical interpretation of emotions, and (2) the 'reserving' of music to connoisseurs of the new style. The term has been borrowed as the name of a London ensemble devoted mainly to Renaissance and early baroque music, giving its first performances in 1960.

Musica Transalpina, the first printed collection of Italian (i.e. transalpine) madrigals with English words; it had great influence on English music. Edited by Nicholas Yonge in 2 volumes, 1588 and 1597, the composers including Palestrina, Marenzio, and Lassus.

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