Speaking in Academic Contexts

Rhetorical Functions in Academic Speaking: Drawing conclusions

Examples

Read the following conclusions:

So we've seen that water-related problems continue to affect millions of people and, contrary to what most people believe, future water supplies will not last for ever. So the situation is very serious, especially in view of the UN estimates of what we will need in the future. Of course, there are many projects trying to provide ever-increasing supplies of water and these indicate that a growing number of countries are aware of the present problems and of those to come. However, these more often than not are highly expensive and not very practical. They are also very time-consuming and time is a commodity which is in short supply. So, while research in these areas is important, we feel that the eventual solution would definitely be to conserve water worldwide and control pollution. In other words, we need to respect our most valuable natural resource much more than we do.

In conclusion, it is certainly true that the twentieth century gave us some advantages by, for example, making us richer, healthier and freer to enjoy our lives. However, in our opinion, it did not make us wiser. The twentieth century also made our earth dirtier, our people less humane, and our spiritual lives poorer. We should, of course, continue to enjoy the benefits of technological advancements because they free us to pursue our interests and goals. However, we must make a concerted effort to preserve our natural environment for future generations. Moreover, we should take the time now to make our lives more meaningful in an increasingly impersonal, computerised world.

Language

In short,
In a word,
In brief,
To sum up,
To conclude,
To summarise
In conclusion,
On the whole,
Altogether,
In all,

...

 

It is

generally
widely

accepted
argued
held
believed

that .

 

Therefore,
Thus,
On this basis,
Given this,

it

can
may

be

concluded
deduced
inferred

that .

 

From

Table 1

it

can
may

be

seen
concluded
shown
estimated
calculated
inferred

that .

the

table
figures
data
results
information

 

In conclusion,
Finally

we/may say
it can/may be said

that .