English for Academic Purposes: Vocabulary
Specific vocabulary for use in your academic area.
As well as knowing the frequent general words and the general academic words, there are two other types of words you need to know. You also need to know some of the less frequent words used in English and it is also necessary to know the specific words for your subject.
I have used Paul Nation's computer program Range to take subject specific texts and make a list of words in the text that are not in GSL or AWL. Here are some examples with help from colleagues to distinguish between subject specific vocabulary and less frequent words and a little editing:
abdomen, abnormalities, abnormality, abolish, abortion, abortions, abrupt, absorbs, absorption, abuse, acacia, accomplished, acetic, acid, aconite, acoustics, activated, activates, actuated, acupuncture, acute, ad, adherent, adherents, adjunct, adjuvant, administered, administering, adrenal, adrenaline, advent, adverse, aerobics, affirmed, afflictions, age-adjusted, ageing, age-old, agility, ailments, airborne, airways, alchemist, alcohol, alcoholic, alertness, alien, alimentary, allergy, alpha, ambulance, ammonia, amniocentesis, amniotic, amputated, amputation, anaemia, anaesthesia, anaesthesiology, anaesthetics, anatomic, anatomical, anatomist, anatomists, anatomy, angina, announcement, anomalies, antagonistic, anterior, anthology, anthrax, anthropology, antibiotics, antibodies, antibody, anticancer, antidepressants, antidotes, antigen, antigens, antiquity, antiseptic, antiserum, aorta, apes, aphorisms, appetite, archbishop, arduous, arsenal, arsenic, arterial, arteries, arterioles, artery, arthritis, asbestos, asbestosis, aseptic, assimilated, astrologer, astronomer, atmospheric, atoms, attentive, attenuated, auspices, authorised, autoimmune, autonomic, avidly, axial, bacilli, bacillus, backache, bacon, bacteria, bacterial, bacteriological, bacteriologist, bacteriologists, bacteriology, bacterium, balsam, bandage, bark, baron, bastion-who, batteries, battlefields, bedside, beer, behaviourism, benign, beriberi, beta, bible, biblical, binomial, biochemical, biochemist, biochemistry, biochemists, biologic, biological, biologist, biology, biopsy, bishop, bladder, blood-forming, bloodstream, bone-marrow, bored, born, botanist, botany, bowel, brakes, breakdown, breakpoint, breast, breasts, breeding, brilliant, brine, bristling, broccoli, bronchitis, builder, burgeoning, bypassing, cabbage, cabinet, cadavers, calcium, calorie, calories, cancer, cancerous, cancer-related, cancers, cannabis, canon, capillaries, capitalist, capsule, captivities, carbohydrates, carbolic, carbon, carcasses, carcinogenic, carcinogens, carcinoma, carcinomas, cardiac, cardinal, cardiovascular, career, care-poor, carrier, cartilage, castor, catalytic, catastrophic, cathedral, catholic, cauliflower, causally, causative, cavities, cavity, celebrated, cell, cells, cellular, cervical, cervix, cessation, chambers, chanted, charitable, chemical-transmitter, chemist, chemistry, chemists, chemotherapeutic, chemotherapy, chewing, childbirth, chilled, china, cholera, cholesterol, chromosome, chromosomes, chronic, cigar, cigarette, cigarettes, cinchona, circuit, circulate, circulation, circulatory, circumcision, cirrhosis, clinical, clinician, clinicians, clinics, cloister, clone, cloning, coitus, college-based, colon, column, combat, combating, community-based, community-health, compressing, compulsory, computer-aided, computer-assisted, computerised, concoctions, conditioned, confinement, congenital, congestion, congress, connective, contagion, contagious, contending, contention, contraceptive, contraceptives, contraction, contractions, contractual, convey, cord, cornerstone, coronary, corpses, corpus, correlating, cortex, cortisone, counselling, counsellor, counterpart, cradle, cranial, credence, cretinism, crick, criminals, crippled, criticism, cross-resistance, cruciferous, crusades, crypt, culmination, culprit, cuneiform, cupping, curability, curative, Curie, curriculum, curtailed, cytokines, dame, dawn, deaconesses, dean, decadence, dedifferentiation, defect, defective, defects, deficiencies, deficiency, deficits, delegates, deleted, deletion, delineation, demon, demonology, demons, denounced, density, dental, dentist, dentistry, dentists, deoxyribonucleic, departments-local, deplete, deposition, depressive, derangement, dermis, descendants, determinants, detrimental, devastating, developmental, devised, devising, diabetes, diabetics, diagnose, diagnosed, diagnosing, diagnosis, diagnostic, diaphragm, diarrhoea, dictates, diet, dietary, diet-deficiency, dietetics, diffuse, digest, digestion, digestive, digit, digital, digitalis, dilution, dioxide, diphtheria, director-general, disabilities, disability, disable, disabled, disabling, disaster, discernible, discharge, disciple, disconnected, discourage, disease-free, disease-producing, diseases-including, dislocations, disorder, disorders, disorganisation, disparate, dispensed, disproof, disrupted, dissected, dissection, dissections, disseminate, disseminated, disseminating, dissemination, dissipate, diuretics, doctorate, doctrine, doctrines, dogma, donated, donor, donors, doom, dormant, dosages, dose, dose-related, double-layered, draining, drains, drawings, dreaded, dressings, droplets, drug, drugs, dual, ducts, dye, dyes, dynasty, ecclesiastic, ecclesiastical, efficiently, ejaculates, elaborate, elaborated, elaborates, elaboration, electrodes, electromagnetic, electron, electrons, electroshock, elegant, elementary, elements-fire, elevate, elevated, eligibility, eligible, elongation, emanating, embalming, embarking, embodying, embolism, embraced, embraces, embryological, embryology, embryonic, embryos, emetics, emission, emitted, emotional, emotions, emperor, emphysema, empiricists, emulsions, enactment, endanger, endings, endocrine, endocrinologists, endorsed, endurance, enemas, engaged, engulf, enlarged, enlargement, enlarges, enrolled, entitlement, enzyme, enzymes, epidemic, epidemics, epidemiological, epidemiologists, epidemiology, epidermis, epilepsy, epinephrine, epithelial, eradication, erection, essay, essays, et, ethicists, eugenics, evaporation, excelled, excitation, excrete, excretions, excretory, executive, exemptions, exert, exerted, exertion, exhaling, exhausted, exile, expelled, exponents, exposition, extremes, faculty, faeces, fallopian, fatal, fatalities, fatigue, federal-state, fee-for-service, feminine, femoral, fermentation, fertilisation, fertilised, fibre, fibres, fibrous, figs, filter, first-line, fistula, flourished, flourishes, fluid, fluids, foetal, foetus, folk, folklore, forbade, forceps, formaldehyde, formalised, foster, fowl, foxglove, fraction, fractures, fragile, fragments, fraternity, freeman, fringe, fumes, funk, furthered, gall, gamete, gamma, gangrene, gastric, gastrointestinal, gauge, gauges, gene, genes, genesis, genetic, genetics, genius, genome, geographic, germ, germs, gestations, gland, glands, glandular, goitre, gonorrhoea, gonorrhoeal, gross, growths, guidance, gullet, guy, gymnasiums, gymnastic, gymnastics, gynaecologist, gynaecology, haemoglobin, haemorrhage, haemorrhages, harbouring, harmony, hazardous, hazards, headache, headquarters, health-demonstration, health-insurance, health-status, heartbeat, heavy-metal, helium, hemispheres, hemp, henbane, hepatitis, hereditary, heredity, hernia, hero, heroic, herpes, heterogeneity, high-fat, hip, histologist, histology, hoarseness, homer, homoeopathy, honoured, hormone, hormone-dependent, hormones, hospice, hospices, hospital-insurance, humane, humanity, humours, hydrocarbons, hydrophobia, hygiene, hygienic, hypertension, hypertrophy, hypothalamus, hypothyroidism, imaging, imbalance, immovable, immune, immunity, immunisation, immunising, immunologist, immunology, immunosuppressive, impaired, impedes, impetus, implant, implantation, implanted, impressive, impulse, impulses, incantation, incantations, incision, incomparably, incubated, incubation, indebted, indigestion, industrialisation, industrialised, inelastic, infant, infants, infarction, infected, infection, infections, infectious, inferior, infiltrate, infiltration, infirm, infirmary, infirmity, inflammation, influenza, ingestion, inhale, inhaled, inhaling, inheritance, inherited, injected, injecting, injection, injections, inmates, inoculated, inoculating, inoculation, inoperable, inpatient, insanity, insemination, inseminations, inseparable, insisting, inspired, insulate, insulin, intake, integrative, intellectual, interferon, interior, intermittent, interrogation, intestinal, intestine, intestines, intrauterine, intrusion, invade, invader, invasion, invasive, inversely, involuntary, irradiation, irritants, isomers, isotope, isotopes, isotopic, jogging, judo, jugular, karate, kidney, kidneys, knights, laboratory, lactation, lactic, landowners, large-cell, laryngeal, laser, latent, laxatives, legionnaires, lemon, lenses, leprosy, lesions, leucotomy, leukaemia, lieu, life-style, life-styles, life-support, ligaments, ligature, lingering, lipid, lithium, liver, lobe, lobotomy, localised, localising, lodge, long-term, low-status, lubricate, lukewarm, lymph, lymphatic, lymph-node-bearing, lymphocytes, lymphoma, lymphomas, magic, magical, magnetic, magnetism, magnification, mainstay, malaria, malarial, malevolent, malformations, malfunctioning, malignancy, malignant, malnutrition, mammogram, mammography, manic-depressive, manifestations, manuscripts, marrow, martial, massage, mastectomy, maternal, maternity, mathematician, measles, mechanists, medical-care, medical-insurance, medication, medications, medieval, melanoma, mellitus, membranes, menopause, menstruation, merging, mesons, metabolic, metabolism, metabolites, metastases, metastasis, microanatomy, microbiologist, microbiologists, microbiology, microscope, microscopes, microscopic, microscopically, midwife, midwives, milestone, milliseconds, mineralogist, mingled, mirror, mishaps, mission, mitigate, modality, modifiers, mole, molecular, molecule, molecules, monoxide, morbidity, morphology, mortality, mosquito, moths, mould, mounted, movable, mumps, municipal, muscle, muscles, muscular, mutation, mutations, myocardial, mystical, nagging, naked, napoleon, narcotic, national-is, naturalist, needy, neighbouring, neoplasm, nephritis, nerve, nerves, nervous, neurological, neurologist, neuromuscular, neurosurgeon, neutrons, newborn, nicotine, nightingale, nitrate, nitrite-cured, nitrogen, node, nodes, nomenclature, nongovernmental, non-tipped, noteworthy, nuclei, nursery, nursing-home, nurturing, nutrient, nutrients, nutrition, nutritional, nutritious, oath, obesity, obligated, obstetrician, obstetrics, obstructing, obstruction, obstructive, oesophagus, oestrogen, oil-soaked, one-pack-a-day, oneself, opaque, operable, ophthalmic, ophthalmology, ophthalmoscope, opium, opposition, optical, optics, optimal, oral, organic, organism, organisms, orifices, originating, outnumber, outpatient, outset, ova, ovarian, ovaries, overcrowded, overeating, overproduction, overrun, overshadowed, overt, ovulation, ovum, oxford, oxides, oxygen, pacific, pack-years, palaeontologist, palliation, palliative, palpation, pancreas, pancreatic, papyrus, par, parasite, parasitic, parasympathetic, parathyroid, particulate, partnerships, pastor, pathological, pathologist, pathology, pathways, patients, paved, payable, pectoris, pellagra, pelvic, penetrate, penetrating, penicillin, penis, percussion, peripheral, perish, peristalsis, pernicious, personality, personnel, peter, phagocytes, pharaoh, pharmacology, pharyngeal, pharynx, phosphorus, photographic, phrenology, physician, physicians, physicist, physicists, physics, physiological, physiologist, physiologists, physiology, pi, pictographs, pigments, pioneer, pioneering, pioneers, pithy, pituitary, plague, plant-breeding, plasma, plastic, pneumonia, polarised, policy-making, poliomyelitis, pollutants, pores, porous, portray, positron, posterior, postoperative, posture, potassium, potent, potions, poultices, powerless, pox, precautions, preclude, precursor, predispose, predisposes, predominately, pregnancies, pregnancy, pregnant, prehistoric, premature, premiums, preoperative, preparatory, prescribed, prescribing, prescription, prescriptions, present-day, prevailing, prevalence, preventive, priesthood, priest-magician, probe, probing, professor, progesterone, prognosis, prognostic, prognostics, prolapsed, proliferate, proliferates, proliferating, proliferation, prolonged, propelled, propelling, prosperity, prostate, prosthetic, protein, proteins, protestant, protons, provincial, proximity, psoriasis, psychiatric, psychoanalysis, psychosurgery, psychotherapy, psychotic, puberty, public-assistance, public-health, publicised, puerperal, pulmonary, puncture, purges, purification, pyramid, quinine, rabid, rabies, radiation, radiations, radioactive, radiological, radiology, radiotherapy, radium, radon, ram, rash, reappear, reattached, recall, receptor, receptors, recipient, recognisable, reconcile, reconstructive, rectal, rectum, recurrent, rediscovery, red-meat, reed, references, reflex, reflexes, reflexive, reform, reformation, reformer, reforms, refraction, refuge, refuted, refuting, regularity, rehabilitation, rehabilitative, rejoined, rejoining, remnants, renaissance, renal, rendered, renowned, repeal, repealed, replenishing, replication, reproductive, resemble, resembles, resembling, resetting, resistant, resonance, resort, resorting, respiration, respirators, respiratory, resurgence, retrieval, retrieve, retrieved, retrovirus, revitalised, revival, revived, rheumatic, rhubarb, rhythm, rhythmic, ribs, rickets, ridiculous, right-handed, risen, ritual, roentgen, roger, roman, rotate, rotated, rotation, routine, routinely, rubella, rudimentary, salaried, saliva, salivary, salons, salt-cured, salts, sanitary, sanitation, sarcomas, saturated, scabies, scan, scandals, scanner, scanning, scarlet, scholar, scholastic, scourges, scrutiny, scurvy, searing, secretariat, secrete, secreted, secretes, secretion, secretions, sect, sects, secular, seemingly, segments, segregation, seizures, self-discipline, self-examination, self-reproduction, semen, senior, septicaemia, serums, severed, sewage, shed, sheds, shrink, silkworm, silkworms, simplex, simultaneously, skeletal, skeleton, skeletons, skull, skulls, slice, slices, slough, small-cell, smallpox, smear, smoke-free, smoker, snatching, sneezing, snuff, sodium, solo, somatic, sophisticated, sorcerer, south-east, span, speaking, specialities, spectacles, spectacular, spectrophotometer, speculum, sperm, spinal, spine, spleen, splints, spontaneous, spontaneously, sprouts, stagnation, stamina, standardisation, starving, state-sponsored, sterilisation, sterilise, stethoscope, stigma, stillbirths, stimulant, stimulate, stimulated, stimulates, stimulating, stimulation, stimulus, stool, stormy, stratum, strenuous, streptococcal, streptomycin, strides, strokes, studios, subclasses, subcontinent, subdivide, subdivided, subdivisions, subjective, sublimation, subtypes, sufferers, sulphanilamide, sulphonamide, sulphur, summoned, sunscreen, sunscreens, superficial, superior, supernatural, superstition, supervision, supplanted, supplemental, supplementation, supplies-resulted, surgeon, surgery, surgical, surgically, surpassed, surrogate, surtax, surveillance, survivals, susceptible, sutures, symptoms, syndrome, synthesis, synthesise, synthesised, syphilis, systematised, tablets, tagged, takeover, talismans, tanner, tannic, taxation, taxonomist, team-working, tendons, termed, terminally, testament, testes, testicles, testicular, testis, testosterone, test-tube, tetanus, thawing, theocratic, theologian, therapeutic, therapies, therapy, thereafter, thickening, thinker, thin-walled, three-dimensional, threshold, thrived, thrombosis, thymus, thyroid, tiny, tissue, tissues, tolerable, tolerance, toll, tone, torturing, toxic, toxicity, toxicology, tracer, tract, training-most, traits, tranquilliser, transfusion, transfusions, translator, translocations, transparent, transplant, transplantation, transplants, transpositions, treatise, treatises, tremendous, trepanning, triplets, tuberculosis, tubules, tumour, tumours, tumour-specific, tumour-suppressor, twins, tympanum, typhoid, typhus, typified, ultrasonic, ultrasound, ultraviolet, unabsorbed, unborn, unchecked, unclear, underground, undernourished, understaffed, undesired, undifferentiated, undisputed, unexplored, uninhabitable, unstained, unsupported, untreated, unwashed, urinary, urine, uterine, uterus, vaccinating, vaccination, vaccine, vaccines, vacuum, vagina, valves, van, vascular, vasoconstrictor, vasomotor, vast, vastly, vector, vegetables, vein, veins, venomous, venous, ventricle, ventricles, vertebrae, very-high-frequency, viable, victim, victor, viral, virulent, virus, viruses, viscera, vital, vitality, vitamin, vitamins, vitro, vivisection, vocational, vomiting, vulnerable, warded, warming-up, warren, wart, wavelength, wavelengths, weakened, well-balanced, well-being, white-collar, whooping, withering, womb, workplace, worldwide, wormwood, woven, wrath, x-ray, x-rays, yeast, yellow, yoga, zygote, zygotes