Academic Writing


6. Documents obtained from the Internet

All references begin with the same information that would be provided for a printed source (or as much of that information as possible). The WWW information is then placed at the end of the reference in the same way as publishing information is given for books. It is not necessary to give the date of retrieval unless the document on the Web may change in content - e.g. a wiki - move, or be removed from a site altogether.

The object of this is the same as all referencing - to supply the information needed to allow a user to find a source. If you do not know the author or the date and it does not have a clear title, think carefully before using it. See  Evaluating Sources

a. A journal article:

Jacobson, J. W., Mulick, J. A. Schwartz, A. A. (1995). A history of facilitated communication: Science, pseudoscience, and antiscience: Science working group on facilitated communication. American Psychologist, 50, 750-765. Retrieved from

b. A journal article, with DOI:

Gillett, A. J. & Hammond, A. C. (2009). Mapping the maze of assessment: An investigation into practice. Active Learning in Higher Education, 10, 120-137. doi: 10.1177/1469787409104786

c. A newspaper article:

Sleek, S. (1996, January). Psychologists build a culture of peace. The New York Times, pp. 1, 33 Retrieved from

d. WWW Document:

Li, X. & Crane, N. (1996, May 20). Bibliographic formats for citing electronic information. Retrieved from

e. WWW Document - corporate author:

World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). (1995, May 15). About the World Wide Web. Retrieved from

f. WWW Document - corporate author:

American Psychological Association (1996). How to cite information from the world wide web. Retrieved from

g. WWW Document - no author:

A field guide to sources on, about and on the Internet: Citation formats. (1995, Dec 18). Retrieved from

h. WWW Document - no author, no date:

WWW user survey. (n.d.). Retrieved from

i. An abstract:

Rosenthal, R. (1995). State of New Jersey v. Margaret Kelly Michaels: An overview [Abstract]. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 1, 247–271. Retrieved from

j. Wikipedia Document - no author, no date, source material may change over time:

Psychology. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved October 14, 2009, from

k. Entry in online reference work, no author, editor or date:

Heuristic (n.d.) In Merriam-Webster's online dictionary (11th ed.). Retrieved from

l. Page from a website:

Gillett, A. (2017). Academic writing: Writing a list of references. Retrieved from

m. Blog post:

Gillett, A. (2017, February 23). EAP and student motivation [Blog post]. Retrieved from