Grammar in EAP



Extraposition refers to a process of moving (extraposing) an embedded clause from its usual position to the end of the sentence.This usually involves the use of the introductory-it construction.

For example:

That income tax will be reduced is unlikely.

It is unlikely that income tax will be reduced.

The most common types of extraposition are:

  1. It is impossible to understand what followed.

  2. It is unclear why the results occurred.

  3. It is essential to have a boundary region or origin, from which position is measured.

Re write the following as extraposed sentences with an introductory-it. 

  1. All a neurone can do is to transmit impulses at varying frequencies. Appreciating this is important.

  2. Not only "natural" but also "civil" philosophy comes under Hobbes's general definition of philosophy. Remembering this is important.

  3. In the process you do not make your everyday life a misery.This is essential.

  4. The frequency of occurrence of the OR actually declined during conditioning for the control subjects. Noting this is interesting.

  5.  A redefinition of the principal crimes of physical violation would cover most of these cases anyway. This seems liklely.

  6. We want to introduce the definitions. This is also convenient.

  7. To list the various possibilities. This is appropriate here.

  8. We should exclude everyday physical contact with others. It seems difficult.

  9. We need to devise ways of combating this impulsivity. This is difficult.

  10.  Whether such knowledge is possible anyway is extremely doubtful..

  11. The professionals who have been responsible for the running of such companies at local level will have been allied to the more liberal group among the upper protestant classes.This is likely.

  12.  Why the developing island countries are actively pursuing the advancement of the scientific understanding of and formulation of policies on the climate change and sea-level-rise topics. This is quite understandable.

  13.  In many cases warts will regress and even disappear without any treatment - this is certainly true - but why this should happen is unclear.


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