Academic writing style

Exercise 6: Noun-based phrases

Formal written English uses nouns more than verbs.

Rewrite the underlined parts of the following sentences using a noun-based phrase instead of the "wh" clause.

e.g. Many futile attempts have been made to teach animals to speak how humans speak.

Many futile attempts have been made to teach animals to speak in human fashion.

  1. It is essential to discuss how much cultural and biological evolution can be explained by similar principles.
  2. Many factors must be considered in explaining how fast the population has grown in the developing countries.
  3. Classes differ greatly in how membership is established and how fast membership changes.
  4. There are advantages and declines in labour productivity and both are related to how much the population density is increasing.
  5. Anthony Eden, the Foreign Secretary, asked them how much the full internationalisation of civil aviation was possible.
  6. It follows that the key issue is how much there was a significant Soviet threat to those supplies.
  7. But even in this he is a failure as he can't remember a word, nor does he know why he is going to be executed.
  8. I cannot avoid the feeling why we were disenchanted was simply because of the kinds of problems we were given.
  9. On the surface, why women and domestic architecture were associated were obvious.
  10. Menzel (1973) has shown that non-speaking chimpanzees can convey where food is to one another.
  11. It is easiest to list foods and drinks according to where they are stored.
  12. How much precaution is taken is regularly reviewed in the light of the patient's progress.
  13. The week following admission appears to be when the risk is greatest.
  14. It is important to remember that whatever type of subsequent care is to occur, the period after discharge may be when things are particularly difficult.
  15. When the riots occurred, 36 per cent of the workforce in Handsworth was out of work.
  16. These star charts were provided to enable the deceased to tell what time it is and what day it is.
  17. After leaving the town, Tom Owen could at first find nowhere for his family to rest at all.
  18. When I was fifteen or sixteen none of my peers were interested in such matters.
  19. How long the prisoner stays in prison is determined by someone who has not heard any representations by or on behalf of the prisoner on grounds which the prisoner does not know.
  20. How big this group is varies in different centres.

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